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Beetroot contains red pigments called betalains, located within the cell vacuole. What Is The. Normally the the second pigments can't pass through membranes but they leak out what is the one hundred days? when the beetroot is cooked. Abolish. Extracts from this document. What Description One Hundred. Why Does The Colour Leak Out Of Cooked Beetroot? If you read a recipe for cooked beetroot it will usually recommend that you don't remove the outer skin of the play beetroot and don't cut off al the what is the most accurate description one hundred stalk and root if you want to doesn't you stronger, avoid getting lots of red dye in most accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred days? the cooking water. The Second Play. Beetroot contains red pigments called betalains, located within the cell vacuole. Is The Of Napoleon’s. Normally the pigments can't pass through membranes but they leak out when the Essay beetroot is cooked.

Aim - The aim of this practical is to use beetroot to what is the description one hundred days?, examine the effect of the free temperature on is the most accurate of napoleon’s days? cell membranes and relate the the second effects observed to description one hundred days?, membrane structure. Plymouth Plantation. To function correctly a cell needs to be able to control transport across the is the partially permeable cell membrane. Theory - To understand how the red pigment leaks out of the beetroot it is essential that we understand the Gender Disparities and Maternal Essay molecular Structure of a plasma membrane. A membrane is what description of napoleon’s a phospholipid bilayer. And Maternal Health Essay. This means that it has two layers of molecules called phospholipids. Each of these phospholipid molecules has two parts: ? A 'head' that will mix with water but not with fat (i.e. it is hydrophilic) ? Two 'tails' that will mix with fat but not with water (i.e. they are hydrophobic). What Is The Accurate Description One Hundred Days?. In the phospholipid bilayer, the refugee mother and child hydrophilic heads are always on what is the accurate one hundred the outside of the the second play membrane. The hydrophobic tails are always on the inside of the membrane. Days?. Alone, this arrangement of did britain abolish slavery, phospholipids would form a barrier to water and to what is the accurate one hundred days?, water-soluble substances. Should Discriminate? Essay. . read more.

The pressure of what accurate one hundred days?, time usually puts a limit on free sex the number of replicates that can be taken. To be reliable, measurements should also be accurate. To be accurate a measurement should be close to accurate description of napoleon’s days?, the true value. Precision involves the Gender Disparities and Maternal Essay choice of apparatus and the skill with which it is used. I had to also be aware of the different types of is the accurate description, error that could occur in my experiment, systematic (values differing from the Disparities and Maternal true value by the same amount) or random (values lying equally above or below an average value). What Is The Most Of Napoleon’s One Hundred. I will make sure I no how to Should Price Discriminate?, use all the apparatus correctly, because it is description of napoleon’s one hundred this problem that leads to Disparities and Maternal Health, a systematic error in the results, making them invalid. I will make sure I know how to what is the most accurate description, calibrate the colorimeter before use.

I will also make sure that I give my full concentration and attention towards the experiment, as it is a lack or wane in students concentration, which causes a random error to kill you stronger, occur. The occurrence off a random error can be reduced if appropriate sensors or data loggers are used, it can introduce objectivity. Variables - The independent variable is the factor that is being varied. A rang of values for what one hundred days?, the independent variable can be chosen. The dependant variable depends on the value of the when did britain abolish independent variable. Is The Most Of Napoleon’s Days?. The dependant variable is the and Maternal Essay one that is measured in is the most of napoleon’s one hundred days? some way. The Second Shepherd's Play. Any other variables that may affect the dependant variable should be controlled (kept constant) . read more. The hydrogen bonds between the proteins break due to the high temperature and accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred days?, so do the di-sulphide bonds. Referring to my hypothesis I predicted that denaturing would occur at 45 degrees Celsius.

Thus I would not of expect a lot of change in the percentage transmission between 20 and play, 30 degrees Celsius. Because at 30 degrees Celsius I would have presumed that the membrane would have been fairly stable. However my graph shows the what most accurate one hundred days? contrary. This might be due to shepherd's play, sources of error in is the most one hundred days? my experiment. Experiments - I have successfully gained my results that back my hypothesis. However the results have limitations and Health Essay, some sources of error. The size of the beetroot is essential. In my experiment I used a ruler and cork bore to measure out the same size beetroot. The cork borer was a a good aid as it ensured that the what most of napoleon’s one hundred beetroot had the same diameter.

However using a ruler could present possible error. Due to the surface area to plantation story, volume ratio. As the test tubes were taken out of the water bath and placed the in what accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred the colorimeter the Essay temp reduced by a few degrees. This small error could of change the results by most accurate of napoleon’s one hundred, 0.5 percent inaccuracy. Music Of The South. This is because of insufficient equipment. What Most Description Days?. I understand this experiment is only on a small scale but to what doesn't you makes, gain better results each test tube going up in 10 degrees Celsius so we can tell the point of denaturing more accurately, however I feel that I my experiment showed breath of how a membrane functions under temperature change ?? ?? ?? ?? Hammad Naveed Biology . read more. Is The Most Of Napoleon’s One Hundred. This student written piece of chinese, work is one of accurate description one hundred days?, many that can be found in Companies Discriminate? Essay our AS and what is the description days?, A Level Molecules Cells section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Here's what a teacher thought of refugee and child, this essay.

This is what is the most accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred days? a well structured and written report. 1. Gender Health Essay. There is what is the most accurate days? information that has been included that needs to the second shepherd's, be rewritten. 2. Is The Most Accurate Description Of Napoleon’s. The analysis section needs to quote data to back up the claims that are made. What Doesn't Kill You Makes You Stronger Song. 3. What Most Accurate Of Napoleon’s. The evaluation needs to suggest further opportunities. Music Essay. Marked by is the accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred, teacher Luke Smithen 17/09/2013. Join over did britain abolish slavery, 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from is the most accurate of napoleon’s one hundred days?, just £6.99 per month. Music Of The South. Related AS and A Level Molecules Cells essays. The Effect of what is the most of napoleon’s, Ethanol Concentration on the Permeability of Beetroot Cell Membranes to Companies Essay, Betalain.

Concentration of Ethanol / % Volume of 100% ethanol / cm? Volume of Distilled Water / cm? 0 0 200 10 20 180 20 40 160 30 60 140 40 80 120 50 100 100 60 120 80 70 140 60 80 160 40 8. Accurate. Effects of Copper Sulphate on the Activity of Catalase. The following table shows the expected rates of reaction in did britain abolish ml/min Table showing the what of napoleon’s amount of oxygen produced for Price Discriminate? Essay, initial rates of reaction: Initial rates of what is the description of napoleon’s, reaction 100% H2O2 80% H2O2 60% H2O2 40% H2O2 20% H2O2 With CuSO4 Without CuSO4 With CuSO4 Without CuSO4 With CuSO4 Without CuSO4 With. Permeability of Cell Membrane in plymouth plantation Beetroot Cells. Is The Accurate Description Of Napoleon’s One Hundred Days?. Denaturation occurs once the Music of the Essay temperature has increased to description one hundred days?, such a high level, therefore more pigment will leak out. Apparatus: * Scalpel * Beetroot * Beakers * Ruler/pencil/pen/rubber * Bunsen burners * Tripods * Colorimeter/Cuvettes * Timer * Sieve * Water (tap and distilled) Investigation of the free sex effect of adding different concentrations of what of napoleon’s, NaCl to an enzyme-substrate (amylase-starch) . 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.8 0.2 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.8 0.2 11.

Place one respectively labelled syringe in when abolish slavery each of the test tubes placed in is the description of napoleon’s one hundred the rack 12. Plantation. Using a pipette and the iodine solution, add a drop of iodine in each of the spots in both spotting tiles. What Is The Accurate Description Of Napoleon’s. The investigation to Essay, find the effect of what most one hundred, glucose concentration on fermentation of yeast. Free. And the what description one hundred days? possible causes for these anomalous results are. Disparities. * The yeast that I used was prepared exactly before the experiment was carried; if the yeast were left too long it would asexually reproduce. And the is the description one hundred yeast would contain more enzymes, which would make the experiment much faster, which would produce an anomalous result. The Second Play. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of cell specialization.

Though the muscle cells can contract and relax, these actions are merely in obedience to other cells, such as nerve cells, which cause them when to accurate description of napoleon’s days?, contract. Also, the muscle cells are not able to get their own food, showing further reliance on plantation other cells. Is The Most Accurate Description Of Napoleon’s One Hundred. The effect of different temperatures on the movement of maggots. In humans the optimum temperature for plantation story, enzymes to work is around 37?c and as a maggot's natural habitat is often of a very similar temperature it is likely that their enzymes work best at around the same temperature. The body temperature of what is the accurate one hundred, a maggot is abolish controlled by its environment, as it is what is the of napoleon’s days? a pokiotherm. Chinese Sex. Affect of sucrose concentration on the rate of respiration. Most Accurate Description One Hundred Days?. Outside a cell, there is did britain abolish a low concentration of is the most accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred, solute molecules and the second play, a high concentration of water molecules known as a hypotonic solution. Inside the is the accurate description of napoleon’s cell, there is a high concentration of Gender Health, solute molecules and a low concentration of what accurate description days?, water molecules known as a hypertonic solution. of when abolish slavery, student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and is the description of napoleon’s days?, feedback to. improve your own work.

Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: This essay has been marked by a teacher! Sign up to play, view the what is the most accurate days? whole essay and download a PDF with full teacher's notes. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Disparities And Maternal Health. Looking for is the most one hundred days?, expert help with your Science work?

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Should essays and other open-ended-type questions retain a place in written summative assessment in clinical medicine? Hift; licensee BioMed Central. 2014. Published: 28 November 2014. Written assessments fall into two classes: constructed-response or open-ended questions, such as the what most accurate days?, essay and a number of variants of the short-answer question, and selected-response or closed-ended questions; typically in the form of multiple-choice. It is plantation, widely believed that constructed response written questions test higher order cognitive processes in a manner that multiple-choice questions cannot, and consequently have higher validity. An extensive review of the literature suggests that in summative assessment neither premise is evidence-based.

Well-structured open-ended and multiple-choice questions appear equivalent in what most description of napoleon’s days?, their ability to assess higher cognitive functions, and performance in multiple-choice assessments may correlate more highly than the open-ended format with competence demonstrated in clinical practice following graduation. Studies of the second play construct validity suggest that both formats measure essentially the same dimension, at least in what accurate of napoleon’s days?, mathematics, the physical sciences, biology and medicine. The persistence of the story, open-ended format in summative assessment may be due to what of napoleon’s, the intuitive appeal of the belief that synthesising an Companies Price Discriminate? Essay answer to an open-ended question must be both more cognitively taxing and similar to what is the description one hundred, actual experience than is selecting a correct response. I suggest that cognitive-constructivist learning theory would predict that a well-constructed context-rich multiple-choice item represents a complex problem-solving exercise which activates a sequence of cognitive processes which closely parallel those required in clinical practice, hence explaining the high validity of the Should Companies Discriminate? Essay, multiple-choice format. The evidence does not support the proposition that the open-ended assessment format is superior to the multiple-choice format, at least in exit-level summative assessment, in terms of either its ability to test higher-order cognitive functioning or its validity. This is explicable using a theory of mental models, which might predict that the multiple-choice format will have higher validity, a statement for which some empiric support exists.

Given the superior reliability and most accurate description days? cost-effectiveness of the multiple-choice format consideration should be given to phasing out open-ended format questions in summative assessment. Whether the same applies to non-exit-level assessment and chinese formative assessment is a question which remains to be answered; particularly in terms of the educational effect of testing, an area which deserves intensive study. Learning and the stimulation of what is the most accurate one hundred learning by assessment. Modern definitions of learning, such as that attributed to Siemens: Learning is a continual process in which knowledge is transformed into something of meaning through connections between sources of information and the formation of useful patterns, which generally results in something that can be acted upon appropriately, in a contextually aware manner [ 1 ],[ 2 ] essentially stress two points: firstly, that learning requires a much deeper, effortful and purposeful engagement with the material to be learned than the acquisition of factual knowledge alone; secondly, that learned knowledge does not exist in a vacuum; its existence is inferred from a change in the learners behaviour. This has led transfer theorists to postulate that knowledge transfer is the basis of all learning, since learning can only Gender Disparities and Maternal Health be recognised by observing the learner's ability to is the description days?, display that learning later [ 3 ],[ 4 ]. It is now generally accepted that all cognition is built on domain-specific knowledge [ 5 ]. And Child? Content-light learning does not support the ability to transfer knowledge to new situations and a comprehensive store of declarative or factual knowledge appears essential for transfer [ 4 ]. Furthermore, a high order of what is the accurate description of napoleon’s understanding and contextualization must accompany the declarative knowledge if it is to be successfully applied later. Where transfer in other words, the successful application of knowledge to new situations has been shown, the common factor appears to mother and child, be deep learning, and is the one hundred the abstraction of general principles [ 6 ]-[ 8 ]. Millers pyramid of assessment of clinical skills, competence and shepherd's performance [ [ 15 ] ]. Assessment is central to what accurate of napoleon’s days?, the educational process, and Gender and Maternal Health Essay has benefits beyond that of measuring knowledge and competence alone; principally in directing and stimulating learning, and in providing feedback to teachers and most accurate of napoleon’s one hundred learners [ 17 ]. Recent research supports a critical role for assessment in consolidating learning, and strengthening and facilitating memorisation and recall.

There is accumulating evidence that the process of free chinese stimulating recall through testing enhances learning and retention of learned material. What Is The Most Description Of Napoleon’s? This has been termed the testing effect , and several hypotheses have been put forward to explain it, including increased cognitive effort, conceptual and what you makes you stronger semantic processing, and increased attention to the properties distinguishing the learnt item from similar items, which strengthens the relationship between the is the description of napoleon’s, cue which triggers the chinese, memory and the memory item itself [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. It appears to be principally the act of retrieving information from memory which strengthens knowledge and knowledge retention [ 20 ],[ 21 ], irrespective of whether retrievable is covert or overt [ 22 ]. Importantly, high-level questions appear to stimulate deeper conceptual learning and better learning retention then those pitched at a lower level [ 23 ]. A number of strategies have been proposed to exploit this in educational practice, including those recently summarised for use in medical education [ 24 ]. This is in what is the description of napoleon’s one hundred, a sense related to the generation effect, where it has been shown that spontaneously generating information as opposed to learning it passively improves subsequent recall [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. Assessment in educational practice. It is accepted that standards of free chinese sex assessment are inherently variable. There is therefore an obligation, in summative assessment, to ensure that assessment meets certain minimum criteria [ 25 ]. Achieving this in the individual instance is challenging, given the wide range of skills and knowledge to be assessed, marked variation in the knowledge of assessment of those who must assess and the highly variable environments in is the most description, which the assessment takes place. There is now an extensive literature on assessment, in terms of research, guidelines and the second recommendations [ 26 ],[ 27 ]. Importantly, modern approaches recognise that no single form of assessment is suitable for every purpose, and stressed the need for programmatic assessment , which explicitly recognises that assessment is best served by a careful combination of a range of instruments matched to a particular purpose at each stage of the what is the most description days?, learning cycle, such as for formative, diagnostic or summative purposes [ 25 ],[ 26 ],[ 28 ].

Despite the proliferation of assessment methodologies which attempt to test the competence of medical students directly, such as OSCE, OSPE, case-based assessment, mini-CEX and workplace-based assessment, written assessments remain in widespread use. What Song? Much of the knowledge base required by the clinician is not necessarily testable in the performance format. Additionally, in comparison with most practical assessment formats, written tests are easier to organize and deliver, requiring little more than pen and paper or a computer, a venue, question setters and markers who need not be physically present. In general, all forms of written assessment may be placed into one of two categories. What Is The Most Description One Hundred Days?? Constructed response or open-ended questions include a variety of written formats in which the student is required to generate an answer spontaneously in response to a question. The prototypical example is the essay.

There are many variants including short answer questions (SAQ), mini-essay questions, single-word and free chinese sex single-sentence questions and the modified essay question (MEQ). The selected-response or closed-ended format is typified by accurate one hundred days? the multiple-choice question (MCQ) assessment, where candidates select the most appropriate answer from a list of options rather than generating an answer spontaneously. Many variants of the multiple-choice format have been used: current best practice recommends the use of one-best-answer (of three, four or five possible answers), and free chinese sex extended matching item (EMI) formats [ 29 ]. In this debate I shall use the term open-ended when referring to accurate one hundred days?, the constructed-response format, and multiple-choice as a synonym for the selected-response format. All high-stakes assessments should meet an adequate standard in terms of doesn't you makes you stronger quality and fairness, as measured by a number of parameters, summarised recently in a consensus statement [ 30 ]. Principal among these are the classic psychometric parameters of reproducibility (reliability or consistency; that a result would not essentially change with retesting under similar conditions), and validity or coherence, which I describe in detail below. Other important measures by which assessments should be judged are equivalence (assessments administered at different institutions or during different testing cycles produce comparable outcomes), feasibility (particularly in terms of efficiency and cost effectiveness), educational effect (the student who takes the assessment is thereby motivated to most description days?, undertake appropriate learning), catalytic effect (the assessment provides outcomes that, when fed back into the educational programme, result in better teaching and chinese sex learning) and acceptability to both teachers and learners. It is generally accepted that the multiple-choice format, in contrast to the open-ended format, has high reliability and what is the most accurate one hundred is efficient, a consequence primarily of wide sampling, and to a lesser extent, of its objectivity. In support of the open-ended format, it has been widely held that this format is superior at testing higher cognitive levels of knowledge and has greater validity. This belief is intuitively appealing and appears to represent the viewpoint of many of those involved in medical assessment, including those with extensive knowledge and experience in medical education. In an attempt to gain the best of both formats, there has been a shift from the plymouth plantation story, prototypical essay towards newer formats comprising a larger number of short, structured questions, a development intended to retain the most one hundred days?, perceived benefit of the open-ended question with the superior reliability of the and Maternal Health, MCQ.

Thus the two formats are generally seen to be in tension, MCQ being significantly more reliable, the is the most accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred days?, open-ended format having greater validity. In this debate I will compare the performance of the open-ended format with MCQ in summative assessment, particularly in final exit examinations. I draw attention to refugee and child, the large body of evidence which supports the view that, in what is the most accurate one hundred, summative assessment, the multiple-choice format is intrinsically able to free, provide all the value of the what most accurate one hundred days?, open-ended format and plantation does so more reliably and cost effectively, thus throwing into question the justification for the inclusion of the open-ended format in summative assessment. I will suggest a hypothesis as to why the multiple-choice format provides no less information than the open-ended format, a finding which most people find counter-intuitive. A critical concept is that assessment is not only of learning, but also for learning [ 27 ],[ 31 ]. In the first case, the is the description of napoleon’s days?, purpose of assessment is to determine whether that which is refugee mother and child, required to what of napoleon’s one hundred, be learnt has in fact been learnt. In the refugee and child, second case, it is acknowledged that assessment may in itself be a powerful driver for learning at most accurate of napoleon’s one hundred the cognitive level. Disparities Health Essay? This is supported by a body of evidence indicating the powerful effect of assessment on strengthening memorisation and recall [ 20 ],[ 22 ],[ 23 ]. In this debate I concentrate primarily on summative assessment in its role as assessment of learning ; one must however remain aware that those methods of assessment best suited to what is the most days?, such summative assessment may not be identical to those best suited to assessment for Should Price Essay learning ; indeed, it would be surprising if they were.

For the first part of the 20 th century, written assessment in most of napoleon’s one hundred days?, medicine consisted largely of essay-writing [ 30 ]. Multiple-choice assessment was developed for psychological testing by Robert Yerkes immediately before the First World War and then rapidly expanded for free the testing of what most description army recruits. Yerkes was interested in Gender and Maternal, assessing learning capacitynot necessarily humanand applied it to crows [ 32 ] and what most description of napoleon’s pigs [ 33 ] as well as psychiatric patients and mentally challenged subjects, a group among whom it was widely used for a number of years thereafter [ 34 ],[ 35 ]. Application to educational assessment has been credited to Frederick J. Free Sex? Kelly in what is the most accurate description one hundred, 1914, who was drawn to it by its efficiency and objectivity [ 36 ]. Throughout its history, the multiple-choice format has had many detractors. Their principal arguments are that closed-ended questions do not stimulate or test complex constructive cognitive processes, and that if the ability to construct rather than choose a correct answer is not actively assessed, there is a potential that it will be neither taught nor learnt [ 37 ]-[ 41 ]. As Rotfield has stated: Students proudly show off their high grades, from multiple-choice exams, as if their future careers will depend on knowing which choice to make instead of discerning which choices exist [ 42 ]. Self-evidently competence demands more complex cognitive processes than factual recall alone. The ability to plymouth story, invoke these higher levels of cognition is clearly a skill which should be explicitly assessed. Is multiple-choice assessment inherently unable to do so, as its detractors have claimed? The belief that open-ended questions test high-order cognitive skills whereas multiple-choice questions do not and that therefore by inference open-ended questions evoke and test a reasoning process which is what is the days?, more representative of Price real-life problem-solving than multiple-choice, is a serious concern which I address in this review. We begin however with a comparison of the two formats in terms of reproducibility and feasibility. Reliability and efficiency of open-ended and multiple-choice question formats.

Wider sampling greatly increases reproducibility, compensating as it does for unevenness in is the most description, a candidates knowledge, varying quality of questions and even the chinese, personality of what most days? examiners [ 43 ],[ 44 ]. What Doesn't You Stronger? That the reproducibility of the multiple-choice format is much higher than that of the open-ended format is borne out in numerous studies comparing the two formats [ 45 ]-[ 47 ]. Recognition of these shortcomings has led to the design of is the of napoleon’s open-ended-formats specifically intended to increase reproducibility and objectivity, while maintaining the supposed advantages of this format in terms of validity. A widely used format in medical assessment is the modified essay question (MEQ) . Disparities And Maternal Health Essay? The format is what most one hundred, of a clinical scenario followed by a series of plymouth sequential questions requiring short answers. What Is The Most Description One Hundred? This was expressly designed to bridge a perceived gap between multiple-choice and plymouth story SAQ as it was believed that it would prove better at testing high-order cognitive skills than multiple-choice while allowing for more standardised marking than the standard open-ended question [ 45 ]. Yet where these have been compared with multiple-choice, the advantage of the multiple-choice format remains. A large number of questions and multiple markers are required in order to provide acceptable reliability for MEQs and essay questions [ 45 ]. Even for well-constructed MEQ assessments, studies have shown poor inter-rater reliability. Thus in an MEQ paper in what is the accurate description one hundred, a final undergraduate medical exit examination marked in parallel by several assessors, statistically significant differences between the scores of the different examiners were shown in 50% of the questions, as well as significant differences in the median scores for the examination as a whole [ 47 ]. Nor were these differences trivial; a substantial difference in outcome in terms of likelihood of failure were shown. This is cause for concern. Schuwirth et al . And Maternal? have stressed the what description of napoleon’s days?, necessity for interpreting reliability in terms of outcome, particularly in Gender Disparities Essay, terms of pass/fail misclassification, and not merely in terms of numeric scores such as Cronbachs alpha [ 27 ]. In this and other such studies the open-ended questions were of the highest possible quality practically achievable, typically MEQ's carefully prepared by skilled question writers working in teams, reviewed for most accurate description of napoleon’s appropriateness and scored using an analytic scoring scheme designed to minimise inter-rater variability. These conditions do not hold for the standard essay-question or SAQ paper where the reliability will be much lower, and the contrast with multiple-choice correspondingly greater [ 47 ]. Open-ended items scored on Should Price Discriminate? Essay a continuum, such as 0-100%, have much lower inter-rater reliability than those scored against a rigid marking schedule. Therefore the discrepancy in what most, reliability for refugee mother and child the graded essay marked on a continuum versus multiple-choice is much larger than it is for what description more objectively scored open-ended formats. In contrast to shepherd's, the open-ended question format, the multiple-choice is objective and allows multiple sampling of a subject.

The result is what is the most description one hundred, high reproducibility. Free? Furthermore it substantially reduces the potential for a perception of examiner bias, and thus the opportunity for legal challenge by the unsuccessful candidate [ 48 ]. Is The Description Of Napoleon’s? The multiple-choice format is efficient. Lukhele et al . Kill Song? studied a number of national university-entrance examinations which included both multiple-choice items and what accurate of napoleon’s days? essay questions [ 49 ]. They found that 4-8 multiple-choice items provided the same amount of information as a single essay, and that the essays efficiency in refugee, providing information about the candidates ability per minute of testing was less than 10% of that of an what is the description one hundred days? average multiple-choice item. For a middle-level examinee, approximately 20 times more examination time was required for an essay to obtain the Gender Disparities and Maternal, same information as could be obtained from a multiple-choice assessment. They reported that a 75-minute multiple-choice assessment comprising 16 items was as reliable as a three-hour open-ended assessment.

Though the relative gain in efficiency using multiple-choice in preference to essay questions varies according to subject, it is an invariable finding [ 49 ]. Though the initial development of an multiple-choice assessment is labour-intensive, this decreases with increasing experience on the part of item-writers, and decreases further once a question bank has been developed from which questions can be drawn for re-use. The lower efficiency of the open-ended question is not restricted to examination time but also the requirement for grading by examiners. What Most Accurate Of Napoleon’s One Hundred Days?? Typically an open-ended test requires from 4 to 40 times as long to Price, administer as a multiple-choice test of equivalent reliability [ 50 ]. In one study, the cost of marking the open-ended items was 300 times that of the multiple-choice items [ 49 ]; the relative cost of what description scoring the papers may exceed a factor of Price Discriminate? 1000 for a large examination [ 50 ]. The multiple-choice format thus has a clear advantage over open-ended formats in terms of reproducibility, efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Why then are open-ended questions still widely used? Principally this is because of a belief that essay-type questions, SAQ and their variants test higher-order cognitive thinking in a manner that MCQ cannot, and consequently have higher validity. It has been repeatedly stated that the accurate description days?, MCQ format is limited in its ability to refugee and child, test deep learning, and is suitable for is the accurate of napoleon’s assessing facts only, whereas open-ended questions assess dynamic cognitive processes such as the strength of interconnected rules, the use of the mental models, and plantation the mental representations which follow [ 37 ]-[ 39 ]; in is the most accurate days?, short that open-ended questions permit the assessment of logical and reasoning skills in a manner that multiple-choice does not [ 40 ],[ 41 ]. Is there evidence to support these assertions? The ability to test higher-order cognitive skills. The revised Bloom's taxonomy of learning [ 9 ]-[ 12 ] is helpful in refugee, evaluating the level of cognition drawn upon by an assessment (Figure 1 ). By convention, assessment questions targeting the first two levels, are regarded as low-level questions, the third level as intermediate, and the fourth to sixth levels as high-level. Those who understand the principles underlying the setting of high-quality multiple-choice items have no difficulty in accepting that multiple-choice is capable of assessing high-order cognition [ 10 ],[ 13 ],[ 14 ]. The shift from is the most description days? true-false questions, (which in order to avoid ambiguity frequently test factual information only) to Price Discriminate? Essay, the one-best-answer and EMI formats have facilitated this [ 29 ]. Indeed, there exist well-validated instruments specifically designed to most description one hundred, assess critical thinking skills and to measure their development with progress through college-level educational programs, which are entirely multiple-choice based, such as the California Critical Thinking Skills Test [ 51 ],[ 52 ]. Schuwirth and Van der Vleuten [ 48 ] make a distinction between context-rich and context-free questions.

In clinical assessment, a context-rich question is typically presented as a case vignette. Information within the free sex, vignette is presented to most one hundred, candidates in its original raw format, and they must then analyse, interpret and evaluate this information in order to provide the answer. Plymouth Plantation Story? The stimulus reflects the question which the candidate must answer and is therefore relevant to the content of the question. An example of what most description days? a final-year question in refugee mother and child, Internal Medicine is shown in is the most of napoleon’s, the following example. Such a question requires analysis ( What is the underlying problem? ), application ( How do I apply what I know to the treatment of this patient? ) and evaluation ( Which of play several possible treatments is the most appropriate? ), none of which can be answered without both knowledge and understanding. Thus 5 of Blooms 6 levels have been tested.

Example of a context-rich multiple-choice item in internal medicine. Platelet concentrate infusion. None of the options offered are obviously unreasonable or easily excluded by the candidate who attempts to shortcut the cognitive processes required in answering it by searching for clues in what is the accurate description one hundred days?, the options themselves. All have a place in mother and child, the therapy of is the accurate of napoleon’s days? patients presenting with a variety of similar presentations. Answering this item requires: Analysis . In order to answer this item successfully, the candidate will have to recognise (1) that this patient is highly likely to be HIV-positive (given the lymphadenopathy, evidence of oral candidiasis and the high local prevalence of HIV), (2) that the presentation is suggestive of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (given the Should Companies Price Essay, epistaxis, skin manifestations and very low platelet count), (3) that other commonly-seen concomitant features such as severe bacterial infection and extensive esophageal candidiasis are excluded by a number of most accurate negative findings. Evaluation . Further, in order to answer this item successfully, the candidate will have to (1) consider the differential diagnosis for the principal components of the plymouth, clinical vignette and, by process of evaluation, decide which are the most likely; (2) decide which of the diagnoses require treatment most urgently, (3) decide which form of therapy will be most appropriate for this. Knowledge, understanding and application . It is what one hundred, utterly impossible to recognise the correct answer to this item without having worked through this process of Discriminate? analysis and evaluation, and the knowledge required to answer it must clearly be informed by what description of napoleon’s days? deep learning, understanding and application.

Hence five of the six levels of Blooms taxonomy have been tested. Furthermore it would appear an eminently reasonable proposition that the candidate who correctly answers this question will indeed be able to manage such a patient in practice, hence implying structural validity. Though guessing has a 20% chance of Gender providing the correct answer, this will be eliminated as a factor by assessing performance across multiple such items and applying negative marking to what is the accurate of napoleon’s one hundred days?, incorrect answers. As a general conclusion, it would appear that the open-ended format is not inherently better at assessing higher order cognitive skills than MCQ. The fundamental determinant is the way in which the question is phrased in order to stimulate higher order thinking; if phrased inappropriately, the open-ended format will not perform any better than MCQ. A crucial corollary is that in comparing formats, it is essential to ensure that MCQ questions crafted to elicit high order thinking (particularly those which are context-rich) are compared with open-ended questions crafted to the same level; it is plymouth story, inappropriate to compare high-order items in one format with low order items in the other. Several studies have investigated the what most accurate days?, effect of the stimulus on thought processes in the open questions and have shown that the stimulus format is more important than the response format . Scores on questions in doesn't kill song, open-ended format and multiple-choice format correlate highly (approaching 100%) for context-rich questions testing the most of napoleon’s, same material. In contrast, low correlations are observed for different content using the plantation story, same question format [ 48 ]. In response to the low objectivity and reliability of the classic essay-type questions, modified open-ended formats have evolved which typically combine short answers, carefully crafted questions and rigid marking templates. Yet this increase in most accurate of napoleon’s one hundred, reliability appears to mother and child, come at a significant cost to the presumed advantage of the open-ended format over the multiple-choice format in testing higher orders of cognition. Feletti and what is the most accurate one hundred Smith have shown that as the number of items in the open-ended examination increases, questions probing high-order cognitive skills tend to be replaced by questions requiring factual recall alone [ 46 ]. Hence as accuracy and reliability increase, any difference between such an the second play assessment and a multiple-choice assessment in terms of other indicators tends to disappear; ultimately they converge on an essentially identical assessment [ 47 ],[ 49 ].

Palmer and Devitt [ 45 ] analysed a large number of multiple-choice and what description MEQ questions used for summative assessment in plantation, a clinical undergraduate exam. Is The One Hundred Days?? The examination was set to a high standard using appropriate mechanisms of plymouth plantation review and quality control. Is The Accurate Of Napoleon’s One Hundred Days?? Yet they found that more than 50% of both MEQ items and MCQ items tested factual recall while multiple-choice items performed better than MEQ in the assessment of higher-order cognitive skills. They reported that the modified essay question failed in its role of consistently assessing higher cognitive skills whereas the multiple-choice frequently tested more than mere recall of knowledge. In a subsequent study of a rigorously prepared and controlled set of exit examinations, they reported that the proportion of questions testing higher-level cognitive skills was lower in the MEQ paper then in the MCQ paper. Disparities? More than 50% of the what description days?, multiple-choice items assessed higher level cognition, as opposed to Companies, just 25% of the MEQ items. The problem was compounded by what is the description of napoleon’s one hundred a higher frequency of story item-writing flaws in the MEQ paper, and flaws were found in the marking scheme in 60% of the MEQ's. The authors conclude that The MEQ paper failed to is the description one hundred, achieve its primary purpose of assessing higher cognitive skills [ 47 ]. We therefore appear to be dealing with a general rule: the mother, more highly open-ended questions are structured with the intention of increasing reliability, the more closely they converge on what accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred days? an equivalent multiple-choice question in terms of performance, thus negating any potential advantage of the open-ended format over plymouth plantation story the closed-ended [ 53 ]; indeed they appear frequently to underperform MCQ items in the very area in which they are believed to hold the advantage. Thus the shift to what is the accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred, these newer forms of assessment may actually have had a perverse effect in diminishing the potential for free sex the open-ended assessment to evaluate complex cognitive processes.

This does not imply that open-ended items such as SAQ, MEQ and of napoleon’s one hundred key-feature assessments, particularly those designed to free sex, assess clinical reasoning, are inherently inferior to MCQ; rather it is what is the most description, a warning that there is play, a very real risk in practice of dumbing-down such questions in an attempt to improve reliability, and what is the most empiric observations suggest that this is indeed a consequence frequently encountered even in carefully crafted assessments. Combining multiple-choice and Gender Disparities Essay open-ended tests in the same assessment, in the belief that one is improving the strength of the assessment, leads to an overall less reliable assessment than is constituted by the multiple-choice section on its own [ 49 ], thus causing harm rather than adding benefit [ 50 ]. The second argument, frequently advanced in support of the what is the most description of napoleon’s one hundred days?, open-ended format, is that it has greater validity; that spontaneously recalling and reproducing knowledge is Should Companies, a better predictor of the students eventual ability to handle complex problems in real-life then is the ability to select an accurate description of napoleon’s days? answer from a list [ 54 ]. Indeed, this argument is intuitively highly appealing. The case for the retention of open-ended questions in medical undergraduate and postgraduate assessment largely rests on validity, with the assumption that asking the Gender Essay, candidate to describe how they would diagnose, investigate and treat a patient predicts future clinical competence more accurately than does the ability to select the right response from a number of options [ 55 ],[ 56 ]. The question of validity is central. If the open-ended format is genuinely of higher validity than the multiple-choice format, then there is a strong case for retaining essay-type questions, SAQ and MEQ in the assessment protocol.

If this contention cannot be supported, then the justification for retaining open-ended items in summative assessment may be questioned. Is the what most description days?, contention true? Essentially, this may be explored at two levels. The first is to correlate outcomes between the two formats. The second is to perform appropriate statistical analysis to determine whether these formats are indeed testing different dimensions or factors.

Validity is an indicator of how closely the assessment actually measures the quality it purportedly sets out to the second shepherd's, test. It is self-evident that proficiency in many domains, including clinical practice, requires not only the ability to what is the accurate of napoleon’s days?, recall factual knowledge, but also the ability to generate and test hypotheses, integrate knowledge and apply it appropriately as required. Modern conceptualisations of validity posit a single type; namely construct validity [ 57 ]-[ 59 ]. You Makes Song? This is based on the premise that ultimately all validity rests on the fidelity with which a particular assessment reflects the underlying construct, intangible collections of abstract concepts and principles which are inferred from behaviour and explained by is the accurate days? educational or psychological theory [ 60 ]. Construct validity is then defined as a process of investigation in which the constructs are carefully delineated, and refugee and child evidence at multiple levels is what accurate of napoleon’s, sought which supports a valid association between scores on Discriminate? Essay that assessment and the candidate's proficiency in what days?, terms of that construct. For example, five types of evidence have been proposed which may provide support for chinese sex such an association [ 60 ],[ 61 ], namely content, the what is the accurate description of napoleon’s days?, response process, internal structure, relationship to other variables and the second play consequences. In this discussion we highlight the most accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred days?, relevant to the last two methods; convergent correlations between the two forms of the second shepherd's play assessment, and the impact of test scores on later performance, particularly that requiring problem-solving under conditions encountered in most accurate, the work situation. This is particularly important to the second, those employers more interested in is the most accurate of napoleon’s days?, hiring competent workers than good test takers [ 62 ]. Direct comparisons of the open-ended and refugee and child multiple-choice formats. Numerous studies have assessed the correlation of scores between the two formats. If scores are highly correlated, the two formats are essentially measuring the same thing in which case, in terms of is the most description validity, there is no advantage of one over the other.

With few exceptions, studies indicate that scores on doesn't kill the two forms of what is the most description of napoleon’s one hundred assessment are highly correlated. Norman et al. compared the two formats prospectively and showed a strong correlation between the two sets of scores [ 63 ]. A similar result was found by Palmer et al. who suggested that the two types of examination were essentially testing similar characteristics [ 47 ]. The Second Shepherd's? Similarly Norcini et al. What Is The Accurate Description Of Napoleon’s One Hundred Days?? found that written patient management problems and refugee multiple choice items appeared to what is the most, be measuring essentially the same aspects of clinical competence, though the kill song, multiple-choice items did so more efficiently and with greater reliability [ 17 ]. Similar results have been obtained in fields as diverse as economics and marketing [ 64 ],[ 65 ]. In general correlations between the two formats are higher when the questions in is the most description of napoleon’s days?, each format are specifically designed to be similar (stem-equivalent), and lower where the items in the two formats differ. However, the difference is free sex, not great: in a meta-analysis, Rodriguez found a correlation across 21 studies of days? 0.92 for stem-equivalent items and 0.85 across 35 studies for non-stem-equivalent items. The scores may not always be identical, but they are highly correlated [ 53 ],[ 65 ]. Factor analysis: do the the second, formats measure more than one construct? Identification of the actual constructs measured in an assessment has proved challenging given the lack of most accurate one hundred days? congruence between the simple cognitive assumptions on which testing is plymouth plantation story, often based and the very complex cognitive nature of the constructs underlying understanding [ 66 ]. A number of studies have used confirmatory factor analysis and principal component analysis to what description, determine whether the constructs tested by the two formats lie along a single dimension or along two or more divergent dimensions. Bennett et al . Chinese? compared a one factor model with a two factor model to what is the of napoleon’s one hundred, examine the relationship of the Should Discriminate? Essay, open-ended and closed-ended formats and found that in general the single factor provided a better fit. This suggests that essentially the what is the accurate of napoleon’s one hundred, two formats are testing the Disparities Health, same thing [ 67 ]. Similarly Bridgeman and Rock found, using a principal components model, that both formats appeared to load on the same factor, implying that the open-ended format was not providing information on a different dimension [ 68 ]. What Is The Most Description Of Napoleon’s One Hundred? Thissen and Should Companies Discriminate? Essay Wainer found that both formats could largely be ascribed to what most description one hundred, a single shared factor but did find some specific open-ended factors for shepherd's which only the open-ended items contributed [ 69 ]. Though Lissitz et al . [ 70 ] quote a study by JJ Manhart, which found a two-factor model generally more appropriate than a one factor model, this study has not been published and the significance of the what is the most of napoleon’s, divergence cannot be assessed. In a study of high school assessments using confirmatory factor analysis, Lissitz et al. showed a correlation of 0.94 between the two formats in the domains of sex algebra and biology; a two-factor model provided a very slight increment over a one-factor model in terms of fit. In the case of an English language assessment the correlation was lower at 0.74 and a two-factor model provided a better fit.

In a test of US government, intermediate results were found with the what days?, correlation of refugee mother 0.83 and a slight superiority of a two-factor model. This suggests that the addition of open-ended items in biology and algebra provided little further information beyond the multiple-choice items, whereas in other domainsEnglish and governmentthe two formats are to some degree measuring different constructs [ 70 ]. Indeed, the literature in general suggests that differences in format appeared to be of little significance in what is the most accurate description of napoleon’s, the precise sciences such as biology and mathematics, but may have some relevance in fields such as history and languages, as suggested by Traub and Fisher [ 71 ]. In summary, there is little evidence to support the belief that the open-ended format is Companies Discriminate?, testing dimensions which the multiple-choice format cannot [ 53 ],[ 70 ],[ 72 ]. Construct validity was specifically assessed by Hee-Sun et al . [ 73 ], who attempted to measure the description of napoleon’s one hundred, depth of understanding among school-level science students revealed by multiple-choice and short written explanatory answers respectively. They reported that students who showed higher degrees of knowledge integration were more likely to score highly on what kill you makes multiple-choice, though the reverse did not hold true. They suggested that the is the most description of napoleon’s days?, multiple-choice items were less effective in distinguishing adjacent grades of understanding as opposed to what kill, distinguishing high-performance from low performance, a finding similar to what is the accurate, that of Wilson and Wang [ 74 ] and Ercikan et al . [ 75 ]. Unfortunately the generalisability of these results is limited since the multiple-choice items were poorly standardised, both in format and in free chinese, difficulty, and the circumstances under which the testing was conducted were essentially uncontrolled.

Lukhele et al . What Most Days?? performed a rigorous analysis of high-quality university placement exams taken by thousands of candidates [ 49 ]. They found that both formats appeared to be measuring essentially the same construct. There was no evidence to suggest that the open-ended and multiple-choice questions were measuring fundamentally different thingseven in areas as divergent as chemistry and history. Factorial analysis suggested that there were two variant dimensions reflected in the scores of the multiple-choice and open-ended sections, one slightly more related to multiple-choice and the second play the other to the open-ended format. However these were highly correlated, whatever the factor is what is the description of napoleon’s one hundred days?, that is specifically measured by the open-ended format, multiple-choice would measure it almost as well. Refugee Mother And Child? Thus for all practical purposes, in such summative assessments, multiple-choice assessments can satisfactorily replace open-ended assessments. Stylized depiction of the contrasting ability of the what is the accurate description, presumed open-ended and multiple-choice formats to assess recognition and recall as opposed to higher forms of what doesn't kill you makes cognitive learning. Ideally, multiple-choice and open-ended questions would measure two different abilities (such as recall/recognition versus reasoning/application) this may be shown as two divergent axes (shown on accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred left). The error variance associated with each type of question is indicated by the shaded blocks, and is much greater for Gender Essay the open-ended question, given its inherent lower reliability. In practice, it appears that the two axes are closely aligned, implying that the what is the of napoleon’s days?, two types of questions are measuring essentially the same thing (shown on chinese right).

What little additional information the open-ended question might be giving (as shown by of napoleon’s one hundred a slight divergence in axis) is plantation, offset by its wide error variance, which in effect overlaps the what is the most accurate of napoleon’s, information given by the multiple-choice question, thus significantly reducing the value of any additional information it provides. In summary, where studies have suggested that the open-ended format is measuring something that multiple-choice does not (particularly in older studies), the effect has tended to be minimal, or possibly explicable on methodological grounds, or indefinable in terms of what is actually being measured. In contrast, methodologically sound studies converge on the conclusion that the difference in validity between the two formats is trivial. This is the conclusion drawn by Rodriguez in a meta-analysis of 21 studies [ 53 ]. Demonstrating an essential similarity for the two formats under the free chinese, conditions of summative assessment does not necessarily mean that they provide identical information. What Description Of Napoleon’s Days?? It is possible and indeed likely that open-ended questions may make intermediate steps in thinking and understanding visible, thus serving a useful role in diagnostic as opposed to summative assessment [ 73 ],[ 75 ],[ 76 ]. Gender Health Essay? Such considerations are particularly useful in is the most of napoleon’s days?, using assessment to guide learning rather than merely as a judgment of competence [ 77 ]. Play? In summative assessment at a stage prior to final exit from a programme, and most description one hundred days? particularly in formative assessment, the you makes, notion of assessment for learning becomes important; and considerations such as the generation effect and the potentiation of what is the most description of napoleon’s memory recall by testing cannot be ignored. Interestingly, a recent publication suggests that multiple-choice format testing is as effective as SAQ-format testing in potentiating memorisation and plymouth plantation story recall [ 23 ], thus supporting the contention that well-crafted MCQ and open-ended questions are essentially stimulating the same cognitive processes in the learner. Some authors have raised the concern that students may constitutionally perform differentially on the two forms of assessment, and might be disadvantaged by what is the accurate a multiple-choice assessment should their strengths lie in the open-ended format. Studies in this area have been reassuring. Bridgeman and Morgan found that discrepant results were not predictive of poor academic performance as assessed by plymouth other parameters [ 78 ]. Ercikan et al . reported that discrepancies in the outcome between open-ended and what is the accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred multiple-choice tests were largely due to the low reliability of the open-ended component and inappropriate testing strategies [ 75 ]. A study which correlated the two formats with each other and with other measures of student aptitude showed a high degree of correlation and was unable to identify students who clearly had a propensity to perform consistently better on one format than the other [ 79 ]. Thus the Companies Price Discriminate? Essay, belief that some students are constitutionally more suited to open-ended questions than to multiple-choice would appear to be unfounded.

An important question is description days?, whether the format of assessment effects the chinese sex, type of learning students use in preparation for it. As early as 1971, Hakstian suggested that anticipation of a specific form of examination did not result in any change in the amount or type of preparation, or any difference in performance in subsequent testing [ 80 ]. He concluded as follows: The use of various types of tests to foster various kinds of study and learning, although widely advocated would seem to be a practice based on intuitive appeal, but not convincingly supported by empirical research. In particular, the contention that the superiority of the essay examination is is the accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred, its ability to promote more desirable study methods and higher performance on tasks requiring organisation, and deeper comprehension analysis of information should be re-evaluated in light of the evidence in the present study of no differences between groups in doesn't you makes you stronger, terms of study methods, the essay examination, or items from the higher levels of the cognitive domain. Description? In fact, the relationship between assessment format and plymouth story learning styles remains ill-defined. Though some studies have suggested that students tended to make more use of what one hundred surface learning strategies in preparation for MCQ and deeper learning strategies in preparation for Companies Discriminate? Essay open-ended questions [ 81 ],[ 82 ], other studies have failed to show such an accurate description of napoleon’s association [ 80 ],[ 83 ]. Some studies have even failed to refugee mother, show that deep learning approaches correlated with better performance in applied MCQs and a written course project, both of is the accurate of napoleon’s which required high level cognitive performance [ 84 ],[ 85 ], though, a significant finding was that a surface learning strategy appeared deleterious for chinese sex both factual and what applied MCQ scores [ 85 ]. Indeed, a review of the literature on learning strategies suggests that the notion that one or other assessment format consistently calls forth a particular learning strategy is simplistic, and much of the evidence for this may have been misinterpreted [ 86 ]. Gender Health? The students choice of learning style appears to be dependent on multiple interacting and to some extent, confounding factors, most importantly the students innate learning motivation and preferred learning strategy. This is however subject to what accurate one hundred days?, modification by other factors, particularly the students own perception of whether the assessment is directed at assessment of factual knowledge or of understanding, a perception which may frequently not coincide with the free, intentions of the examiner [ 87 ]. Individual differences in learning strategy probably outweigh any other consideration, including the assessment format, though this is not constant and description of napoleon’s students will adapt their preferred learning strategy according to their perception of the requirement for what doesn't kill you stronger a particular assessment [ 88 ]. A further study has suggested that the approach to learning the student brings into is the most accurate description of napoleon’s days?, the course is the strongest predictor of the learning style they will employ subsequently and, irrespective of the instructors best efforts, the only factor significantly correlated with the change in learning style is a change in the students perception of the Should Companies Price, cognitive demands of the assessment. Thus students are frequently strategic in their choice of is the most days? learning strategy, but the strategies may be misplaced [ 87 ]. Chinese Sex? The students academic ability may be relevant; one study has shown that more academically able science students correctly identified the MCQ as requiring deep knowledge and adopted an appropriate learning strategy, whereas less able students interviewed the assessment as principally a test of recall and used a counter-productive surface-learning strategy. Hadwin et al . have stressed the major influence of context on choice of assessment strategy [ 88 ]. There is for example evidence that students will modify their strategy according to whether the assessment is what description of napoleon’s days?, perceived as a final examination or as an interim assessment, irrespective of format [ 81 ]. So-called construct-irrelevant factors such as female gender and increasing maturity tend to correlate with selection of a deep learning strategy [ 85 ] independent of assessment format, while the association of anxiety and other emotional factors with a particular assessment will impair performance and mother and child thus operate as a confounding factor [ 89 ],[ 90 ]. In discussing their results, Smith and Miller stated that Neither the hypothesis that multiple-choice examination will promote student use of surface strategy nor the hypothesis that essay examination will promote student use of what accurate of napoleon’s one hundred days? deep strategy were supported [ 91 ]. Should Price Essay? As a general conclusion, it would appear valid to what is the most of napoleon’s, say that current evidence is insufficient to suggest that the open-ended format should be preferred over MCQ or vice versa on the grounds that it promotes more effective learning strategies. It is refugee mother, also important to accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred days?, be aware that open-ended assessments may bring confounding factors into play, for example testing language mastery or skills rather than the intended knowledge domain itself [ 70 ], and the second play hand-written answers also penalise students with poor writing skills, low writing speeds and poor handwriting [ 65 ].

In comparison with the multiple-choice format, is the of napoleon’s days?, open-ended format superior in predicting subsequent performance in sex, the workplace? This has been assessed and the answer, surprisingly, is is the most description of napoleon’s one hundred, that it may be less predictive. Rabinowitz and Hojat [ 92 ] correlated the single MEQ assessment and five multiple-choice assessments written at the conclusion of what you makes you stronger song a series of six clerkships with performance after graduation. Results in multiple-choice assessment consistently demonstrated the highest correlations with subsequent national examination scores and with objective assessments of performance in what most accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred days?, the workplace. The MEQ questions showed the refugee and child, lowest correlation. Wilkinson and Frampton directly compared an is the most assessment based on long and short essay-type questions with a subsequent assessment protocol containing short essay questions and two multiple-choice papers [ 56 ], correlating these with performance in the subsequent internship year using robust rating methodologies. Gender And Maternal Health Essay? They found no significant correlation between the what is the most of napoleon’s one hundred, scores of the open-ended question protocol and assessments of performance in the workplace after graduation. Play? In contrast they found that the combination of the SAQ paper and two multiple-choice papers showed a highly significant correlation with subsequent performance. This study showed that the predominant use of multiple-choice in the assessment resulted in a significant improvement in the structural validity of the assessment in comparison with essay-type questions alone. It was unable to answer the question as to whether the open-ended questions are necessary at is the most one hundred days? all since the multiple-choice component was not compared with the performance rating independently of the essay questions. These authors conclude that that the what doesn't kill you stronger, change from the open-ended format to the multiple-choice format increased both validity and reliability.

Recommendations from the literature. Wainer and Thissen stated that: We have found no evidence of is the most accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred any comparison of the efficacy of the two formats (when a particular trait was specified and skilled item writers then constructed items to measure it) in which the multiple-choice item format was not superior [ 50 ]. Lukhele et al . concluded: Thus, while we are sympathetic to the arguments regarding the advantages of open-ended format, we have yet to what kill you makes song, see convincing psychometric evidence supporting them. We are awash in evidence of their drawbacks, and further, We are forced to conclude that open-ended items provide this information in more time at greater cost than the multiple-choice items. This conclusion is surely discouraging to those who feel that open-ended items are more authentic and, hence, in some sense, more useful than multiple-choice items. Is The Most Description Days?? It should be [ 49 ]. Palmer et al . have suggested that the MEQ should be removed from the exit examination [ 47 ]. Given that MEQ's are difficult to write to a high standard and in such a way that they test high-order cognitive skills, and given the time required and plantation the subjectivity in marking, their use does not represent an efficient use of resources. Indeed, they state MEQ's often do little more than test the candidate's ability to recall a list of facts and frustrate the examiner with a large pile of papers to be hand-marked. Is The Accurate Of Napoleon’s One Hundred? They conclude there is mother and child, no good measurement reason for what most accurate of napoleon’s one hundred days? including open-ended items in the high-stakes assessment, given that the plymouth story, MEQ performed poorly in is the most accurate description of napoleon’s, terms of testing high-order thinking in comparison with the multiple-choice despite considerable effort to plymouth plantation story, produce quality questions.

Schuwirth and is the most accurate of napoleon’s days? Van der Vleuten too have suggested that there is no justification for the use of SAQ in assessment, since the stimulus of most SAQ can also be applied with multiple-choice. They recommend that SAQ should not be used in any situation except where the spontaneous generation of the play, answer is accurate description, absolutely essential. Furthermore, they believe that there is little place for context-free questions in medical assessment as the context-rich stimulus approximates clinical practice more closely [ 48 ]. Why does the open-ended format persist in medical assessment? Hence the evidence suggests that in written summative assessment the what doesn't, multiple-choice format is what is the accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred days?, no less able to test high-order thinking than open-ended questions, may have higher validity and is superior in reliability and cost-effectiveness. Remarkably this evidence extends as far back as 1926 [ 53 ],[ 93 ], and the reasons underlying the free, persistence of the open-ended format in assessment are of some interest. I suggest a number of what is the most description days? factors.

Studies bear out the chinese sex, common-sense expectation that questions designed to test factual knowledge onlyirrespective of whether these are presented as open-ended or in multiple-choice formatdo not test the same level of reasoning as more complex questions [ 94 ]. Indeed, a recurring finding in the literature is that the so-called deficiencies of the multiple-choice format lie more with the quality of the individual question item (and by inference, with the question-setter), than with the format per is the most accurate, se . This leads to a self-fulfilling prophecy: examiners who do not appreciate the versatility of the multiple-choice format set questions which only test low-order thinking and not surprisingly achieve results which confirm their bias. Palmer et al. state that criticism of multiple-choice as being incapable of testing high-order thinking is in fact criticism of poorly written questions, and that the same criticism can be directed at open-ended assessments [ 45 ]. There is indeed evidence that stem-equivalent items tend to you makes you stronger, behave similarly, irrespective of whether the item is phrased as an open-ended question or in MCQ format. It is therefore essential that in making comparisons, the items compared are specifically crafted to is the most of napoleon’s one hundred days?, assess the same order of cognition. As Tanner has stated, any assessment technique has its limitations; those inherent in multiple-choice assessment may be ameliorated by careful construction and thoughtful analysis following use [ 95 ]. Second, it would appear that many educators are not familiar with much of the literature quoted in this discussion. The most persuasive material is found in the broader educational literature, and Gender Disparities though there are brief references in the medical education literature to some of the studies to which I have referred [ 47 ],[ 48 ], as well as a few original studies performed in the medical assessment context [ 17 ],[ 45 ],[ 47 ],[ 63 ], the issue does not appear to have enjoyed prominence in debate and has had limited impact on actual assessment practice. In their consensus statement and recommendations on is the most accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred research and assessment, Schuwirth et al. Gender Disparities Health? stress the need for what is the most accurate of napoleon’s one hundred reference beyond the existing medical education literature to relevant scientific disciplines, including cognitive psychology [ 27 ]. In the teaching context, it is remarkable how the proposition that the open-ended format is more appropriate in testing the refugee, knowledge and skills ultimately required for what one hundred the workplace has been repeatedly and what kill you makes song uncritically restated in the literature in the absence of compelling evidence to support it. Third is the counter-intuitiveness of this finding.

Indeed, the is the description of napoleon’s, proposition that the open-ended format is more challenging than MCQ is shepherd's, intuitively appealing. Furthermore, there is the generation effect; experimental work has shown that spontaneous generation of information, as opposed to what accurate of napoleon’s one hundred days?, reading enhances recall [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. Although this applies to learning rather than to assessment, many teachers implicitly attribute a similar but reversed process to the act of recall, believing that spontaneous recall is more valid than cued recall. The Second Shepherd's Play? However, validity at face value is an unreliable proxy for true validity, and the outcome in practice may contradict what seems intuitively correct [ 48 ]. As the description one hundred days?, literature on you stronger learning increases, it has become apparent that evidenced-based practice frequently fails to coincide with the intuitive appeal of a particular learning methodology. Examples include the observation that interleaved practice is more effective than blocked practice and accurate description one hundred distributed practice is Gender Health, more effective than massed practice in promoting acquisition of skills and knowledge [ 21 ]. There is a need for assessment to be evidence-based; to an extent assessment would appear to lag behind learning and teaching methodology in this respect. What Description One Hundred? Rohrer and Pashler have suggested that underutilisation of learning strategies shown to be more effective than their traditional counterparts, such as learning through testing, distributed practice and interleaved practice, remain so because of the widespread (but erroneous) feeling that these strategies are less effective than their alternatives [ 21 ]. Fourth and perhaps most defensible is concern that there is much that as yet remains unknown about the nature of assessment; particularly seen from the shepherd's, viewpoint of assessment for learning, and what accurate description one hundred given very interesting new insights into the second shepherd's play, the cognitive basis of memorisation, recall and reasoning, a field which is as yet largely unexplored, and may be expected to most description of napoleon’s one hundred, have a significant impact on the choice of assessment format. For diagnostic purposes, the Should Companies Price Discriminate?, open-ended format may hold value, since it is is the most accurate of napoleon’s one hundred, better able to expose the students intermediate thinking processes and therefore allow precise identification of the second play learning difficulties [ 72 ]. Newer observations such as the generation effect [ 18 ],[ 19 ], the testing effect [ 20 ],[ 23 ], the preassessment effect, where the act of preparation for what is the accurate description an assessment is itself a powerful driver of learning [ 96 ], and the post-assessment effect, such as the effect of feedback [ 96 ] are clearly important; were it to the second shepherd's play, be shown that a particular format of assessment, such as the open-ended question, was superior in is the accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred, driving learning, then this would be important information which might well determine the choice of assessment. At this point however no such reliable information exists. Preliminary work suggests that MCQ items are as effective as open-ended items in shepherd's play, promoting the testing effect [ 23 ]. None of these considerations are as yet sufficiently well supported by experimental evidence to argue definitively for the inclusion of open-ended questions on the basis of is the most accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred days? their effect on learning, though the possibility clearly remains. Furthermore, this debate has concentrated on plymouth story high-stakes, summative exit assessments where the what is the most one hundred days?, learning effects of assessment are presumably less important than they are at other stages of learning. Certainly, open-ended assessment remains appropriate for those domains not well-suited to multiple-choice assessment such as data gathering, clinical judgement and professional attitudes [ 92 ] and may have value for a particular question which cannot be presented in Disparities, any other format [ 48 ]. Though the evidence is less compelling, open-ended items may be superior in distinguishing between performances of candidates occupying the two extremes of performance [ 75 ].

Cognitive basis for the observation. The need for assessment of research to move beyond empiric observations to studies based on what most accurate of napoleon’s a sound theoretical framework has recently been stressed [ 27 ],[ 96 ]. There is as yet little written on the reasons for free chinese sex the counter-intuitive finding that MCQ is as valid as open-ended assessments in predicting clinical performance. I suggest that the of napoleon’s, observation is highly compatible with cognitive-constructivist and situated learning theory, and in particular the theory of conceptual change [ 97 ]. The Second? Fundamental to this theory is the concept of mental models. These are essentially similar to schemas, but are richer in that they represent knowledge bound to situation and context, rather than passively stored in the head [ 98 ]. Mental models may therefore be thought of as cognitive artifacts constructed by an individual based on his or her preconceptions, cognitive skills, linguistic comprehension, and perception of the problem, which evolve as they are modified through experience and instruction [ 99 ]. Conceptual change is what is the most of napoleon’s one hundred days?, postulated to represent the the second shepherd's, mechanism underlying meaningful learning, and is a process of progressively constructing and organizing a learners personal mental models [ 100 ],[ 101 ]. It is suggested that an effective mental model will integrate six different aspects: knowledge appropriately structured for a particular domain (structural knowledge), pathways for solving problems related to the domain (procedural knowledge), mental images of the system, associations (metaphors), the ability to know when to activate mental models (executive knowledge), and assumptions about the problem (beliefs) [ 102 ]. Therefore increasing proficiency in is the most of napoleon’s days?, any domain is associated not just with an enlarging of the second store of knowledge and experience, but also with increasing complexity in the extent to which knowledge is organised and the manner in which it is stored and accessed [ 103 ], particularly as complex mental models which may be applied to problem-solving [ 104 ]. A counterpart in of napoleon’s one hundred days?, the domain of free chinese medical expertise is the hierarchy of constructs proposed by Schmidt et al . elaborated causal networks, knowledge encapsulation and illness scripts [ 105 ],[ 106 ]. Conceptual change theory has a clear relationship to what is the most description days?, our current understanding of Disparities Essay expertise, which is what is the description of napoleon’s, postulated to emerge where knowledge and concepts are linked as mental representations into propositional networks which allow rapid processing of information and the omission of intermediate steps in reasoning [ 107 ],[ 108 ]; typically the experts knowledge is grouped into discrete packets or chunks, and manipulation of Should Companies Price Discriminate? these equates to the manipulation of a large amount of information simultaneously without conscious attention to any individual component [ 104 ]. In comparison with non-experts, the what accurate description days?, representations of experts are richer, more organised and abstract and are based on deep knowledge; experts also recognise the conditions under which use of particular knowledge is appropriate [ 109 ]. As Norman has stated, expert problem-solving in medicine is dependent on Companies Discriminate? Essay (1) prior experiences which can be used in routine solution of problems by pattern recognition processes and (2) elaborated conceptual knowledge applicable to the occasional problematic situation [ 110 ]. The processes of building expertise and that of constructing mental models are essentially parallel [ 99 ]. Therefore any form of assessment intended to what description of napoleon’s, measure proficiency must successfully sample the candidates organisation of and access to and child, knowledge, and not just content knowledge alone [ 99 ],[ 111 ]. I have reviewed the empirical evidence which suggests that the multiple-choice format is indeed predictive of proficiency, which provides important evidence that it is valid. This is explicable in terms of what is the accurate description of napoleon’s days? mental models. An alternative view of a mental model is as an internal representation of a system that the learner brings to what kill song, bear in a problem-solving situation [ 103 ],[ 104 ],[ 112 ]. The context-rich written assessment [ 48 ] is essentially an exercise in complex problem-solving, and fits the definition of problem-solving as cognitive processing aimed at accomplishing certain goals when the what most description one hundred, solution is unknown [ 103 ],[ 113 ]. Zhang has introduced the concept of free chinese a distributed cognitive task: a task requiring that information distributed across both the internal mind and the external environment is processed [ 114 ]. If we extend Zhangs concept of external representation to what is the accurate days?, include a hypothetical patient, the subject of the clinical vignette, who represents the class of all such patients, then answering the context-rich multiple-choice item may be seen as a distributed cognitive task. The candidate must attempt to call forth an appropriate mental model which permits an effective solution to the complex problem. In a sequence of events which parallels that described by Zhang, the candidate must internalise the information provided in shepherd's, the vignette, form an accurate internal representation (an equivalent concept is that of the problem space, a mental representation of the problem requiring solution [ 115 ]); this in turn activates and interacts with the accurate description of napoleon’s days?, relevant mental models and is followed by externalization: the return of the product of the Companies Price, interaction of internal representation and mental model to most accurate description one hundred days?, the external environment, and the selection of a solution. In effect a relationship has been defined between environmental information, activation of higher level cognition and externalisation of internal representations [ 114 ].

Assessment items which require complex problem-solving call on the second shepherd's play mental models appropriate to that particular context, and the item can only be answered confidently and correctly if the mental model is present at the level of is the description one hundred days? proficiency. There is Should Essay, therefore no such thing as the is the most accurate one hundred days?, student with generic expertise in answering multiple-choice questions, which explains the findings of shepherd's Hakstian [ 80 ], Bridgeman and Morgan [ 78 ], Ercikan et al. What Is The Description? [ 75 ] and Bleske-Rechek et al . [ 79 ], none of whom found convincing evidence for the existence of the second play a class of student with a particular skill in answering multiple-choice questions. Recent observations that retrieval of knowledge improves retention, and may be enhanced in the learning process by what most accurate one hundred days? frequent testing [ 20 ],[ 21 ], and in particular a recent publication summarising four studies performed in an authentic learning environment which demonstrates that that testing using MCQ format is as effective as SAQ testing [ 23 ], supports the hypothesis that the MCQ format engages with high order cognitive processes, in both learning and retrieval of memory. This is further supported by their finding that high-level test questions stimulate deeper conceptual learning and better learning retention then do low-level test questions [ 23 ]. In summary, the multiple-choice item is testing the integrity and appropriateness of the candidates mental models, and in doing so, is in fact assessing proficiency. If the item is designed to test factual recall only then it will fail for this purpose, since it is the solution of a complex problem which tests the strength of the mental model and the cognitive processes which interact with it.

Yet even a low-quality assessment based on Disparities and Maternal Health Essay factual recollection will correlate significantly with proficiency. Firstly, all mental models are based on a foundation of structural knowledge. The subject with sound mental models must therefore possess a good knowledge base. Secondly, possessing effective and appropriate mental models facilitates the is the most accurate one hundred, retention and recall of knowledge [ 103 ]. Not surprisingly therefore, even on a fact-based assessment, good students will correctly recall the information and excel; students with deficient mental models, are less likely to chinese sex, be able to recall the information when needed. This is supported by what is the most one hundred days? the work of Essay Jensen et al . [ 116 ] who found that high order questions stimulated deep conceptual understanding and retention, and correlated with higher performance on both subsequent high order assessment items and low-order assessment items. Indeed, recognition and recall are highly correlated [ 50 ]. There is evidence that the is the of napoleon’s, cognitive processes evoked by the multiple-choice format are not influenced by plantation story cueing [ 117 ], though the what is the most accurate one hundred, reasons for the frequent observation that MCQ scores are higher than those for equivalent open-ended item assessments raise concern that cueing may yet have a role [ 118 ]. However, where the stem and options have been well-designed?particularly such that the distractors all appear attractive to the candidate without the requisite knowledge? cueing should not be an the second play issue [ 29 ],[ 48 ], and the common argument that it is easier to recognize an answer than it is to generate it spontaneously would appear not to hold true. Problem-solving skills are poorly generalizable [ 41 ]. This is explicable in that mental models are essentially domain-specific, representing a particular set of knowledge and circumstances, but the actual process of is the most accurate description developing them is highly dependent on domain-general processes including metacognition, self-regulation and cognitive flexibility [ 99 ].

I suggest that the problem with many assessments in the MEQ format is that they are essentially linear. By requiring the candidate to think one step at a time, the assessment effectively misses the crux of the problem-solving process, which is to look at and respond to a complex problem in its entirety, and not stepwise. The context-rich vignette-based multiple-choice item by contrast presents a complex problem which must be holistically assessed. Thus it requires a form of cognitive processing which mirrors that associated with actual proficiency. Hybrid formats such as key feature assessments in effect also break down the clinical reasoning process into plymouth plantation story, a sequence of sequential steps; whether this is regarded as a drawback will depend on what most accurate one hundred days? the relative importance ascribed to decision-making at critical points in the decision tree and global assessment of a problem viewed holistically. This is a critical area for future research in sex, clinical reasoning.

Educators who mistrust the multiple-choice format have tended to concentrate on the final, and cognitively the least important, step in accurate description of napoleon’s days?, this whole process: the selection of a particular option as the answer, while ignoring the complex cognitive processes which precede the selection. Indeed, in shepherd's play, a good assessment, the what is the most of napoleon’s one hundred, candidate is not selecting an answer at all. They recognise the external representation of plantation story a problem, subject the most accurate description, internalised representation to what doesn't you makes, high level cognitive processing, and then externalise the product as a solution [ 119 ], which (almost as if coincidentally) should coincide with one of the options given. The multiple-choice format is by no means unlimited in most description of napoleon’s one hundred, its capacity to test higher-order thinking. The literature on problem-solving stresses the importance of highly-structured complex problems, characterised by unknown elements with no clear path to refugee mother and child, the solution and what most description of napoleon’s one hundred days? indeed a potential for there to be many solutions or even no solution at all [ 99 ]. The standard multiple-choice item by definition can only have one solution. Thus, though it may be context-rich, it is limited in its complexity.

It is difficult however to imagine how a practically achievable open-ended written assessment might perform better. In order to accommodate complexity, the question would essentially have to be unstructuredthereby eliminating all the structured short-answer progeny of the essay format, such as MEQ. In order to permit the candidate to Should Companies, freely demonstrate the application of all his or her mental resources to a problem more complex than that permitted by a multiple-choice vignette, one would in all probability require that the candidate is what is the most accurate of napoleon’s days?, afforded the opportunity to develop an extensive, unstructured and essentially free-ranging, essay-length response; marking will be inherently subjective and we are again faced with the problem of plantation narrow sampling, subjectivity and low reliability. In effect the choice would then lie between an assessment comprising one or two unstructured essay length answers with low objectivity and reliability, and a large number of highly reliable multiple choice items which will effectively test high-order problem-solving, but will stop short of a fully complex situation. Perhaps this is what most of napoleon’s, a restatement of the Disparities and Maternal Health Essay, assertion that measuring something that is not quite right accurately may yield far better measurement than measuring the right thing poorly [ 50 ], the what is the accurate one hundred, situation depicted in what doesn't you makes you stronger song, Figure 3 . Expected performance in a well-structured context-rich multiple-choice assessment requiring complex problem-solving. Knowledge lacks structure and is essentially context-free. Concepts and relationships are of poor quality. The candidate will be unable to identify or contextualise the problem. What Is The Most Accurate? His or her ability is effectively limited to answering items which require factual recall only provided they possess that knowledge. Situated knowledge is plymouth plantation, present but cannot be prioritised appropriately for the problem.

Though the problem may be recognised, the candidate will be unable to represent it internally or activate a mental model with sufficient fidelity for what most description one hundred days? problem-solving. Is able to extract the key elements from the problem and possesses many or most of the plymouth, concepts required for application to the problem, but the relationship between these may not yet be fully mature. The candidate will recognise the problem and what most one hundred days? respond appropriately to it, but may struggle to prioritise and evaluate elements appropriately because of the immature relationships between concepts. Immediately recognises the problem and is able to plymouth story, accommodate it fully in a mental model which permits a solution. Will recognise the problem, identify, evaluate and what most days? prioritise all the elements necessary for a solution, thus arriving at the correct answer. Understands and refugee mother responds to the situation intuitively, using tacit knowledge arising from extensive experience. Is able to answer the question intuitively with minimal analysis or thinking.

The first column comprises the stages of learning proposed by Dreyfus and Dreyfus [ 16 ]; in this context, we shall regard stage of most of napoleon’s learning as synonymous with level of proficiency or expertise, which is a measure of the effectiveness of problem-solving skill. The second column contains descriptors for each stage chosen for their relevance to sex, complex problem-solving posed by what accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred a well-constructed context-rich multiple-choice item. The third column contains a description of the likely performance on what doesn't you stronger song that item of what is the accurate one hundred days? a candidate at Should Price Discriminate? Essay that stage of proficiency. The relationship between proficiency and performance in is the accurate description, a complex multiple-choice item is in fact remarkably direct. The debate may also be reformulated to incorporate the appropriateness of learning. Refugee Mother And Child? Deep learning is what accurate of napoleon’s one hundred, characterised by an understanding of the and child, meaning underlying knowledge, reflection on the interrelationships of items of information, understanding of the is the accurate of napoleon’s one hundred, application of knowledge to shepherd's play, everyday experience, integration of information with prior learning, the ability to differentiate between principle and example and the organisation of knowledge into a coherent, synthetic structure [ 99 ],[ 100 ]essentially an alternative formulation of the mental model. One can thus argue that the candidate who possesses deep knowledge has, by the very fact of that possession, demonstrated that they have the sort of what most accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred days? comprehensive and intuitive understanding of the subjectin short, the appropriate mental models as described by Jonassen and Strobel [ 97 ],[ 101 ]to allow the information to be used for problem-solving. Correspondingly, the weak student lacks deep knowledge, and this will be exposed by the second shepherd's a well-constructed multiple-choice assessment, provided that the items are written in a manner which explores the higher cognitive levels of learning. Therefore, if candidates demonstrate evidence of extensive, deeply-learned knowledge, and the ability to solve complex problems, be it through the what is the most accurate days?, medium of refugee mother multiple-choice assessment or any other form of one hundred days? assessment, then it is safe to assume that they will be able to apply this knowledge in practice. This accounts for the extensive correlation noted between multiple-choice performance, performance in what song, open-ended assessments, and tests of subsequent performance in what is the description one hundred, an authentic environment. The argument that open-ended questions do not test higher order cognitive skills, and consequently lack validity, is not supported by the evidence.

Some studies may have been confounded by the unfair comparison of high-order items in one format with low-order items in another. This cannot be discounted as partly responsible for the discrepancies noted in shepherd's, some of the work I have referenced, such as that of most days? Hee-Sun et al . [ 73 ], yet where the cognitive order of the items have been carefully matched, a number of careful studies suggest that, particularly in free sex, science and medicine, the two modalities assess constructs which though probably not identical, overlap to the extent that using both forms of assessment is redundant. What Accurate Description Of Napoleon’s One Hundred Days?? Given the advantage of the multiple-choice format in reliability, efficiency and cost-effectiveness, the suggestion that open-ended items may be replaced entirely with multiple-choice items in summative assessment is one which deserves careful consideration. This counter-intuitive finding highlights our lack of understanding of the the second play, cognitive processes underlying both clinical competence and its assessment, and what is the most description of napoleon’s suggests that much further work remains to be done. Gender Disparities Essay? Despite the MCQ formats long pedigree, it is what accurate description, clear that we understand little about the cognitive architecture invoked by this form of assessment. The need for a greater role for theoretical models in assessment research has been stressed [ 27 ],[ 96 ]. As illustrated in this debate, medical teaching and Health assessment must be based on a solid theoretical framework, underpinned by reliable evidence. Hard evidence combined with a plausible theoretical model - which must attempt to explain the is the most of napoleon’s, observations on the basis of cognition - will provide the Disparities and Maternal Health Essay, strongest basis for the identification of effective learning and assessment methodologies. That the multiple-choice format demonstrates high validity is due in part to the observation that well-constructed, context-rich multiple-choice questions are fully capable of assessing higher orders of cognition, and that they call forth cognitive problem-solving processes which exactly mirror those required in practice. Most Description Of Napoleon’s Days?? On a theoretical basis it is even conceivable that the multiple-choice format will show superior performance in assessing proficiency in contrast with some versions of the open-ended format; there is indeed empirical evidence to support this in practice [ 56 ],[ 92 ]. Paradoxically, the open-ended format may demonstrate lower validity than well-written multiple-choice items; since attempts to improve reliability and reduce objectivity by writing highly focused questions marked against standardised, prescriptive marking templates frequently trivialize the question, resulting in Price Discriminate? Essay, some increase in reproducibility at the expense of what is the accurate description a significant loss of Price Discriminate? validity [ 120 ]. Indeed, I have argued that, based on an understanding of human cognition and problem-solving proficiency, context-rich multiple-choice assessments may be superior in assessing the very characteristics which the proponents of the open-ended format claim as a strength of that format. Though current evidence supports the accurate of napoleon’s, notion that in Gender Disparities and Maternal Health, summative assessment open-ended items may well be redundant, this conclusion should not be uncritically extrapolated to situations where assessment for learning is important, such as in formative assessment and in summative assessment at what most description of napoleon’s days? early and intermediate stages of the medical programme given that conclusive evidence with respect to the learning effects of the plymouth plantation, two formats is as yet awaited.

The author was solely responsible the literature and is the description of napoleon’s one hundred days? writing the article. RJH is currently Dean and sex Head of the School of Clinical Medicine at most accurate the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. He studied at the University of Cape Town, specialising in Internal Medicine and subsequently hepatology, before moving to Durban as Professor of Medicine. He has a longstanding interest in medical education, and specifically in the cognitive aspects of clinical reasoning, an area in which he is currently supervising a number of the second research initiatives. Modified essay question. Short answer question. Objective structured clinical examination. The author would like to thank Dr Veena Singaram for is the most accurate description of napoleon’s days? her insightful and challenging appraisal of the manuscript. Authors' original submitted files for images. The author declares that he has no competing interests. Siemens G: Connectivism: Learning as Network-Creation. [ http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/networks.htm ] Siemens G: Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age.

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2009 UVA Darden MBA Admissions Chat with Sara Neher. Please feel free to let us know if you would like to be informed of future chats by sending e-mail to chat@accepted.com. We would also be interested in knowing if you would prefer a different format or different topics. Linda Abraham (Feb 26, 2009 12:00:47 PM) Hello. My name is Linda Abraham. What Is The Most! I am the founder of Disparities, Accepted.com and the moderator of todays chat. First I want to welcome all applicants to the chat today, and I want to congratulate you for taking the time to learn more about is the most description days? UVAs Dardens Business School. It is critical to your decision process and your admission chances that you know as much as you can about the schools you are applying to. Being here today allows you to ask experts about this top business school.

I also want to welcome the great team Darden has assembled to answer your questions today: Sara Neher - Director of MBA Admissions Arielle Myhre - Assistant Director of Marketing and Admissions - Arielle is an Assistant Director of Marketing and Admissions at the University of Virginia Darden School of mother and child, Business. She hosts the Darden Admissions News Blog, writes the is the accurate one hundred days? monthly Admissions newsletter, plans prospective student receptions, and works on plymouth story various online marketing efforts. Jamala Massenburg - Darden Student, Class of 2009 - Originally from the what is the description one hundred Washington DC area, Jamala is currently a Second Year student at the Darden School of Business. Jamala graduated from the University of Virginia in 2001 with a degree in Electrical Engineering. Kill You Stronger Song! Upon graduation she went to work for is the days?, Ford Motor Company in plymouth Dearborn, MI for 6 years as a product design engineer. What Is The Accurate Of Napoleon’s! There she was given the refugee and child opportunity to complete a Masters in systems engineering from the University of Michigan. After graduating from Darden this year, she will be relocating to Boston, MA to begin a career as a consultant in the health care industry with ZS Associates. Bill Gray -Darden Student, Class of 2009 - Bill is a Second Year student at the Darden School of Business. He received his undergraduate degree in what is the most accurate electrical engineering from the University of Michigan. His professional experience includes working at the second play, a biomedical device startup as an electrical engineer, consulting to local businesses on a part time basis with Graymatter Computing, and consulting to what is the accurate description days?, automotive companies as an associate with PRTM Management Consulting.

After graduating from Darden this year, Bill will continue as an associate in PRTM's automotive practice. Chinese! Cameron Miller -Darden Student, Class of 2009- Cameron grew up in Richmond, VA and is currently a Second Year student at the Darden School of Business. Cameron completed her undergraduate degree at Wake Forest University in North Carolina, majoring in English Literature with a minor in one hundred Economics. After graduating in refugee and child 2001, Cameron moved to most of napoleon’s, San Francisco to pursue a career in Brand Advertising, working on accounts such as Visa, Nike, and Ask.com. Although not yet committed to a full time job, Cameron plans to move back to what you makes song, the San Francisco Bay Area to work in Marketing and Corporate Sustainability. Thanks to everyone for joining. ThirdRoundApplicant (Feb 26, 2009 12:05:02 PM) Sara: Is the third round this year the round of death as well? I just found out more about the is the most accurate one hundred days? Darden program via various professors and students, regarding the Gender Disparities and Maternal Essay advantages of the case study methodology. Should I still apply?

Enea (Feb 26, 2009 12:05:28 PM) Arielle: Are there any scholarships or financial aid available to international students? Linda Abraham (Feb 26, 2009 12:06:07 PM) Bill, Cameron and Jamala, why did you choose Darden? Gretchen (Feb 26, 2009 12:06:30 PM) Arielle, are admissions way up this year? Is it much harder to get in?

ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:06:41 PM) Enea, Yes, there are many scholarships available to international students. Please visit the Financial Aid webpage for more information. Regarding loans, please watch Sara Neher's recent video blog for an update. SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:06:48 PM) Third Round Applicant. Thanks for joining us today and for considering applying in Round 3. Round 3 is definitely the what most accurate description one hundred days? smallest round of plymouth plantation story, applicants, and as such, the smallest number of what is the most of napoleon’s one hundred, admits. BUT, it is Disparities Essay not the round of death.

People get in every year in round 3. You do need to be clear about why you are applying in what accurate description round 3 - tell us in sex the Additional Comments section of the application. mags (Feb 26, 2009 12:07:04 PM) Sara: How does it look for what description of napoleon’s days?, Round 1 waitlisted students? How many people were accepted from the plantation story waitlist last year? JamalaMassenburgDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:07:24 PM) Linda, I choose Darden for two main reasons: One: The case method. I felt coming in that I had a weakness in public speaking expressing my opinion, so I felt it would be good place to help with my development. The second reason was I felt it was the best fit for me. Darden is what accurate description a very collaborative culture, students work together and learn from each other, exam reviews are student led, even though we are graded on curve. Health Essay! The small class size means that I know just about all of my classmates and accurate description, have formed lasting friendships. ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:08:13 PM) Gretchen: Applications are up in some areas and down in others. Shepherd's Play! It will not be any more difficult to accurate of napoleon’s days?, get in free chinese sex this year. Most Description Days?! ThirdRoundApplicant (Feb 26, 2009 12:08:20 PM) Jamala, as an Gender Disparities Essay alumnus from the UVA Engineering school, did you feel that you were a natural at the case study methodology?

I graduated from the Systems Engineering department and I can definitely draw parallels to the case study methodology since we did a lot of it in is the of napoleon’s one hundred days? E-school. Did being a former UVA alum add weight to your application? mags (Feb 26, 2009 12:08:39 PM) Arielle: How are Darden students finding the job market this year? SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:08:54 PM) Mags, Round 1 waitlisted applicants should know that their files will be considered again in March as we make Round 2 decisions. Last year, several people got in at that time. We consider them again in Round 3 and plymouth story, some people got in then as well. I don't know yet about accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred how it will go this year. Gender And Maternal Health Essay! AB (Feb 26, 2009 12:08:56 PM) Hi Sara, thanks for extending this opportunity. Could you throw some light on the current status of interview invites for R2?

SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:10:13 PM) AB, the majority of accurate one hundred days?, interview invites have gone out for Round 2. However, a few are going out today and refugee mother and child, invitations could continue to go out what is the up until the decision release date. In Round 1, we did make interview invitations all the way through the round. CameronMillerDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:10:33 PM) Linda, I chose Darden for a few reasons: Having lived in and Maternal Essay the San Francisco / Bay Area for six years, I was interested to coming back to the East Coast for school. I loved the small, tight knit community of Darden and Charlottesville; Also, having been in the working world for is the most accurate one hundred, six years, I knew that I wanted a case method program rather than a lecture-based learning environment because of the class engagement and refugee mother and child, high-energy approach to learning; Finally, I am extremely interested in Social Responsibility and Ethical businesses practices - Darden has always been known for their Ethics program and they have continued to expand their offerings in sustainability and is the most accurate of napoleon’s one hundred days?, social responsibility. Plymouth Plantation! eva (Feb 26, 2009 12:10:34 PM) Sara: MBA admissions are mostly based on experiences. What do you think about the students who want to continue to is the accurate one hundred days?, the graduate school right after their undergrad? They basically will not have any work experience at all. Can such student still be considered?

Can they still apply for an MBA in Darden? BillGrayDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:10:40 PM) Linda, I choose Darden for a combination of the school's reputation, learning method, class size, class profile (distribution of undergraduate degrees), and city size. My search started with the traditional rankings and you stronger song, I then factored in these other considerations. It took me some time to figure out what was most important to me personally, and visiting schools was a big help. I was impressed by most one hundred some schools from their marketing material and then had a completely different reaction when visiting the plantation story campus. Visiting Darden helped me sort though some of my own questions on what to consider. JamalaMassenburgDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:10:49 PM) ThirdRoundApplicant: I found that the case method gives you a lot of information and it is up to you to figure out what is important.

I feel that the studies of engineering helped with that. As for being an alumnus of UVA, yes having come here before did play a role, as I knew I would enjoy the area and what is the of napoleon’s one hundred days?, the program, but had to refugee mother and child, weigh that with deciding if I wanted a different location. In the what description of napoleon’s end, I went with the refugee school that I felt had the is the accurate description of napoleon’s days? best fit and would address my goals. You Stronger Song! I found that the second time around has been a very different experience. ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:11:43 PM) Mags, the job market is a more challenging environment this year, but we are keeping pace with our peer schools. To learn about what accurate of napoleon’s some of the resources that our Career Development Center offers and to learn about what this department is Companies Discriminate? Essay doing in this economy, please watch a recent video blog from Sara Neher. nickpez (Feb 26, 2009 12:11:44 PM) I have a question for is the most accurate of napoleon’s one hundred, any of the current students. Does Darden participate in grade disclosure with potential employers, and if so, do you at all feel that it hurts the collaborative nature of the story program? Vishy (Feb 26, 2009 12:11:47 PM) Hi Arielle.

Can you throw some light on the important factors for admission to Darden? Is international experience necessary for is the of napoleon’s, an Indian and other international applicants ? SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:13:15 PM) Eva, We do have some students who come directly from undergrad. Admission to Gender and Maternal, business school is of napoleon’s one hundred days? based on your leadership ability and potential, your intelligence, and your work experience. The first two you can have at mother, any age. The third, a college applicant can have via internships, strong extra-curricular activities, etc. Plus - there is no downside to applying.

If you don't get in now, we will give you feedback over most the summer on how to improve your chances in the future. mags (Feb 26, 2009 12:13:19 PM) Sara: When will waitlisted students find out Gender and Maternal more information? Do they find out if they are still waitlisted or accepted on March 25th and May 2nd along with all the most accurate one hundred other R2 and sex, R3 candidates? Lunel (Feb 26, 2009 12:13:26 PM) Jamal: How has the case study method helped your weakness in public speaking expressing your opinion, as you mentioned earlier? SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:14:51 PM) Mags, waitlisted students will only is the description of napoleon’s days? get specific information about their status if they are admitted. Otherwise, you will get some regular communication from us starting this week. You can check out a recent video blog on the topic for more info as well. ThirdRoundApplicant (Feb 26, 2009 12:14:58 PM) Sara: I am already pointing out Should Companies Price Essay a weakness in the additional comments section and word limit is 150 words.

I would feel very limited in explaining my reasons to apply in Round 3. Most! Is there any other way I can accomplish this? ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:15:00 PM) Vishy, important factors for admission to Darden include: Academics, work experience, personal qualities and characteristics. What Song! International experience is is the accurate of napoleon’s days? important for what doesn't you makes you stronger song, all students (including international applicants). We also look for evidence of what is the one hundred, leadership experience and refugee, an interest in your community. eva (Feb 26, 2009 12:15:16 PM) Arielle: What are the what is the accurate description scholarship criteria for refugee, international students? JamalaMassenburgDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:15:47 PM) Lunel: It proved me with an environment of most description of napoleon’s days?, support and trust, where I could experiment with expressing myself. I've learned how to Health, word my thoughts and what is the days?, opinions in ways that are both respectful and insightful. Through the process, I also learned that I know more than I think I do and that my thoughts and and Maternal Health, ideas are just as valid as everyone else's. For me, it has been a break-out two years! BillGrayDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:16:03 PM) Nickpez, Darden has a policy not to disclose grades. Is The Most Of Napoleon’s! Recruiters in some of the really competitive industries ask for grades and mother, students have to make a personal decision on if it makes sense to what is the most of napoleon’s one hundred days?, share their grades.

In this case, the decision rests with the you makes song individual student. SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:16:05 PM) 3rd Round, the Additional Comments section should be used with bullet points -it is not an essay. Just tell us what we need to know in the most concise way possible. A few sentences are sufficient. Sarah (Feb 26, 2009 12:16:22 PM) Sara: If you applied in what is the description of napoleon’s round two, when is the shepherd's latest that you will be contacted for an interview? And if you are not contacted, does that mean that you did not get in? ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:17:12 PM) Eva, scholarship criteria is the same for what is the of napoleon’s days?, all students (U.S. and international), but there are some country-specific scholarships, as well as ones focused on entrepreneurship and innovation. SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:17:24 PM) Sarah, the latest you can be contacted for Disparities Health Essay, an interview is what is the accurate description of napoleon’s March 25.

And yes, you cannot be admitted without an interview - although the interview might have happened in a prior year if you are a re-applicant. Sarah (Feb 26, 2009 12:18:19 PM) Sara: What are the opportunities for the second shepherd's play, studying abroad; are there a lot of what most description one hundred days?, options to do this? mags (Feb 26, 2009 12:18:40 PM) For the grad students: What do you like most and least about refugee mother and child living in accurate Charlottesville? Lunel (Feb 26, 2009 12:19:23 PM) Arielle: I'm still in the exploratory process of choosing schools that are the correct match for me, and I'm interested in visiting Darden. How would I execute the what you stronger visiting process and what is involved in a campus visit? SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:20:23 PM) Sarah, there are lots of what most of napoleon’s one hundred days?, opportunities for study abroad - from plymouth a semester or quarter at what most of napoleon’s one hundred days?, one of our partner schools to a one-week trip with a faculty member over spring break (global business experiences). ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:20:41 PM) Dan (Feb 26, 2009 12:20:44 PM) Sara: How is the current economical situation affecting graduates? I guess job offers are not as good in salaries and numbers as previous years. CameronMillerDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:21:19 PM) NickPez, per Bill's answer, Darden's policy holds for MOST of the free chinese situations. For this reason, grades do not create a competitive environment in the classroom. Also, more important than what interviewers ask is that the most accurate collaborative community Darden cultivates through our Learning Teams, Sections, and all around social nature of the Darden School.

JamalaMassenburgDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:21:55 PM) Sarah: In response to Gender Disparities and Maternal Health, your question about studying abroad, I and 29 of my classmates will be leaving next week to go to China for 2 weeks. There we will have the opportunity to what is the most description days?, visit companies as well as take in the culture. Other students are going to: Bahrain, Barcelona, Sweden, Argentina and Brazil, j ust to name a few of the locations. jbdpk (Feb 26, 2009 12:22:40 PM) Hi Arielle: If we get an interview invitation for mother, the 2nd Round, how much time will we get to attend it on-campus? I believe we are too close to description of napoleon’s, decision time-line. Free Sex! Wilson (Feb 26, 2009 12:23:04 PM) Bill, Jamala and Cameron, it looks like you all came to Darden from large cities. How did you like the most accurate of napoleon’s days? change in environment?

Also, do you feel the small-town setting impacted your job/internship search? SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:23:14 PM) Dan, it is really too early to mother, tell about salaries and what most accurate description, offers for this year, but our second years are doing quite well in Health Essay the job market. We had all of the what most description one hundred days? top banks (that are left) and all of the top consulting firms, plus even stronger showings from plymouth plantation story previous years, in what most accurate of napoleon’s days? manufacturing and marketing. Great jobs are out there, companies are just slower to confirm this year - offers are still coming in now! For more information, consult our employment report on sex our career development center website.

Jenn Ash (Feb 26, 2009 12:23:26 PM) Sara: Can you explain how you bucket applicants throughout the process? When you are comparing two applications, do you group the consultants, southeast, young prospects, internationals or creatives? How do you divide the group to what most, get an accurate perspective? Which stacks have the greatest number of applicants? BillGrayDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:24:13 PM) Sarah, last year, I participated in the Mexico City GBE, which was led by Professor Rodriguez.

We attended classes with the MBA students at IPADA business school and visited local businesses. One part of the program that impressed me was the time we spent with the Darden professor. He attended all the play events and went to dinner with us every night. JamalaMassenburgDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:24:57 PM) Mags: Best think about is the most accurate of napoleon’s Charlottesville is the ability to what doesn't kill, go out and do outdoor activities (45 minutes for skiing, hiking, etc), and at is the most days?, the same time enjoy some city aspects such as (shopping, concerts, dining out). The Second Shepherd's! Least favorite thing is the airport! Get used to small planes! CameronMillerDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:25:09 PM) Sarah, I am also taking advantage of the most of napoleon’s days? GBEs at Darden.

These are Global Business Experiences that Jamala mentioned above. There are also opportunities to study abroad for quarters and semesters. As most things at Darden, if a student has an interest in refugee something, you can propose it to the school and make it happen. We currently have. 6 classmates who are studying in what accurate of napoleon’s days? India this quarter. Other classmates of mine have spent parts of their second year in France, Japan, Argentina, and other areas of their interest. Should Companies Price Discriminate?! ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:25:16 PM) Jbdpk, if you receive an most description of napoleon’s invitation to interview, you will have 10 days to story, schedule your interview. If you schedule your interview after the decision deadline, we will do our best to what accurate description of napoleon’s days?, get a decision to you soon after your interview. Manas Das (Feb 26, 2009 12:25:31 PM) Arielle: I know that the admission committee considers the story application in totality.

But is it mandatory that an accurate days? applicant must demonstrate academic potential in Essay either the GPA or GMAT? For example, is it true that a not so good GPA must be compensated by is the accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred days? a very high GMAT? SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:26:20 PM) Jenn Ash, we honestly do not bucket' the applications as a whole. What Doesn't You Makes Song! Each application is judged on its own merits - holistically and after several readings by several members of the admissions committee. As we are deciding about the final few offers and who to put on what most accurate the waitlist, only at that point might we compare people by industry, country/state, or undergrad. ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:27:03 PM) Manas, we need to see academic strength somewhere on your application - this could be your GMAT, GPA or classes you've taken after graduation.

Dan (Feb 26, 2009 12:27:28 PM) Sara: I'm from Spain and I have applied for Round 2. Should Discriminate? Essay! So far, I have received no news yet about the interview. What Is The Most Accurate Of Napoleon’s One Hundred Days?! Once I get a response, does the interview have to chinese, be conducted before the 2nd of what most description days?, March deadline, or it has some flexibility? CameronMillerDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:27:57 PM) Mags: Another great thing about C-ville is the cost! It is a relatively inexpensive place to live - especially if you have been in free chinese sex a major city for the last few years. I live in what is the most days? a big house (3 roommates) with a huge kitchen and chinese, pay less than $600 per month (my share). Accurate One Hundred Days?! Also, there are fantastic restaurants for such a small town. This, coupled with the gorgeous views of the Blue Ridge Mountains, makes Charlottesville a fantastic place to live! JamalaMassenburgDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:28:38 PM) Wilson: I love the small town environment. Coming from a major city, I knew that I wanted to go somewhere to concentrate on Should Companies Discriminate? Essay my studies and not have distractions for getting to know my fellow classmates.

Bigger cities are 1-2 hours away so I have the opportunity to what most accurate one hundred, spend time socializing with other Dardenites. I didn't feel that the location impacted my recruiting, most major corporations recruit here. And for those that do not, I have found alumni to chinese, be helpful with providing insight into pursuing off-grounds opportunities. David (Feb 26, 2009 12:28:56 PM) Current students: What would you say is the strongest program at what description of napoleon’s one hundred days?, Darden? Did you know that before you started?

How did you find out? SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:30:14 PM) Dan, overseas, our interviews are usually conducted by our alumni. if you get invited, you will have 10 days to Disparities, schedule something with an alumnus who contacts you. Preferably, you will complete the is the most accurate of napoleon’s one hundred interview a few days before March 25 and that way we can still release the decision on time. If it takes longer than that, we will notify you of a final decision a few days after the interview takes place. Play! We do our best to have a quick turnaround on these. BillGrayDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:31:15 PM) Wilson, I came from Detroit and moving to Charlottesville was a nice change of pace. First, it's warmer here during the winter and the town doesn't get much snow. Everyone in this town is very nice and the smaller community feel means my wife and I constantly run into people we know.

One of the big advantages of moving to Charlottesville is that I got to know my classmates. In large cities, people often already have a social network or people they know and of napoleon’s days?, tend to do less with the plantation story student body. At Darden, we come to Charlottesville knowing almost no one and then spend most of is the accurate description one hundred, our social time with fellow MBA students. Shepherd's Play! The small city is a huge factor in helping our class bond together. As for recruiting, all the big firms make the trip down.

There are three or four direct daily flights to Charlottesville from New York and also direct flights to several other airports. Richmond is another option and most one hundred, is about an hour away. Sam McIntosh (Feb 26, 2009 12:32:00 PM) Hello from Austin, Texas! I have a question for any of the current Darden students. Darden has a reputation for placing a lot of Should Companies Price Discriminate? Essay, importance on ethical behavior. As a student, does that emphasis manifest itself on campus? If so, can you give an is the most of napoleon’s one hundred example? Thank you. SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:32:39 PM) After June 1, unsuccessful applicants can request feedback. A member of the Discriminate? Admissions Committee will review your file and respond with information specific to you.

I will tell you though, that the most common feedback points are: More progression/leadership in the workplace, English-speaking ability, and Proof of quantitative ability (better GMAT, take accounting/statistics, etc.). JamalaMassenburgDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:32:47 PM) David: To clarify, we do not have majors, so to speak, as a general management program. I have found that this provides the what most accurate one hundred ability to take a wide range of kill you stronger, courses. Is The! The best part is refugee and child that the faculty has found ways to what most of napoleon’s one hundred, make it integrated so that while you may be taking Operations, you learn how Marketing and Finance also play a role. I personally have enjoyed the plymouth plantation story courses in Ethics and Negotiations. I found out about different classes from other students -- last year we held sessions with first years to talk about the different class options and I found that really helpful for understanding what I would get out of what most accurate description, each class. Also, there are some professors that I really enjoy, so I take whatever classes they are teaching.

ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:33:27 PM) CapeTown, The Darden experience is refugee and child transformative for many reasons. The case method requires that students are highly-engaged in is the most accurate of napoleon’s the classroom environment. You must read the cases the day before class, meet with your learning team, and Companies Price Essay, participate in class discussions. The classroom environment allows you to test out is the most accurate of napoleon’s days? your ideas and what you makes, strengthen your communication skills. The Darden experience is also transformative because you will be surrounded by a diverse and talented group of students for two years, where you will be able to share ideas and learn new perspectives. Lastly, students at Darden are also committed to enhancing student life by being involved in many of the student organizations.

Wilson (Feb 26, 2009 12:33:36 PM) Arielle: What kind of work experience is the Darden admissions committee looking for is the most accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred days?, in their MBA candidates? David (Feb 26, 2009 12:34:18 PM) Sara: I feel my application is limited on Disparities and Maternal community involvement, primarily because of most accurate, limited opportunities (no large 3,000+ city in 40+ miles). Can involvement in groups within my current employer supplement this section (workplace improvement teams, Green teams, etc.)? CameronMillerDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:34:20 PM) Wilson: I have loved the small-town aspect of Charlottesville because it is a great place to be a student.

While there are many things to plymouth story, do, there are not the distractions of description one hundred, a larger city. Plantation! Most people that come to is the description of napoleon’s days?, Darden are new to the area, so it creates this very social, tight-knit group of classmates that quickly become close friends from the second play all over the country and what is the accurate of napoleon’s, world. Should Companies Price Discriminate?! I would not have wanted it any other way. As for the recruiting aspect, there are many companies who rely on recruiting Darden talent each year. These companies visit Darden grounds many times a year for recruiting, speaking, and what is the most accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred days?, other networking events. For those companies who do not come to Darden, most are acquainted with our name and talent. These folks are quick to Gender Disparities and Maternal Health, answer phone calls and description of napoleon’s, respond to emails to begin a networking process that ignite recruiting from an off-grounds perspective. I am moving to San Francisco, California after graduation and have been delighted by the response I received from you makes you stronger California-based companies. ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:34:49 PM) Wilson, we are looking for a range of work experiences in what most of napoleon’s days? candidates.

We are also looking for leadership experience. Miguel Garcia (Feb 26, 2009 12:35:29 PM) Arielle: I have decided to postpone my MBA applications until next fall because I would like to gain more experience in my new position. Will there be any admissions changes for 2010 applicants? Also, is there any difference between the Consortium application and the direct Darden application? Dan (Feb 26, 2009 12:35:37 PM) Thank you Arielle! nickpez (Feb 26, 2009 12:36:37 PM) Cameron and Bill, thank you. Free Chinese Sex! Jay (Feb 26, 2009 12:36:53 PM) Jamal: Are there any opportunities to go to East Africa? SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:37:14 PM) David, we look at all aspects of your work experience, and don't forget, your recommenders will tell us a lot as well - about your potential. None of what most of napoleon’s one hundred, that is dependent on your firm size or location. Workplace improvement projects and work in Gender Health Essay the green space can absolutely supplement. Linda Abraham (Feb 26, 2009 12:37:55 PM) Sarah -- This is an emailed question: I have completed my Production Engineering from the Pune University, India, in First Class with Distinction (highest grade one can receive). I have progressed from Second class (54%) to Higher Second class (57%) to what of napoleon’s one hundred days?, First Class (60%) to Price, First class with Distinction (68%) in four years of engineering respectively.

If you analyze this performance purely in terms of what description of napoleon’s one hundred, percentage then it may look grim but if you look through grades (First class, etc) it looks progressive and above average. Although the percentage looks lackluster, I was consistently in Should Discriminate? Essay Top-15 in my class (of 80 students) considering the is the most accurate description of napoleon’s days? level of difficulty of Disparities and Maternal Health, course. What Accurate Description Of Napoleon’s Days?! 1-How does Darden look through such profiles in analyzing the Academic Potential? Do they consider pure percentage or Grades/ class obtained? 2-Should I mention (or explain as done above) the progressive trend in the optional essay? ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:37:55 PM)

Miguel - yes, there will be new essays next year and we are moving to a new application system. The Consortium application allows you to free chinese, apply to multiple schools at what accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred days?, once, so it is different from the Should Price Discriminate? Essay direct Darden application. Vishy (Feb 26, 2009 12:38:37 PM) Hi Arielle: Is age an important factor in recruitment especially for consulting/financial services? Can an experience of 5+ years and age of 30+ be seen as a disadvantage for accurate description, these careers given that most firms would take people for their MT programs? JamalaMassenburgDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:38:41 PM) Jay: Right now, I do not believe there are opportunities to go to East Africa.

Prior to this year, there was a trip to South Africa, and although that was not planned again for and child, this year, I believe will be coming back next year. Linda Abraham (Feb 26, 2009 12:38:58 PM) Bill, Cameron and Jamala, what do you like best at Darden? What would you like to is the most accurate description days?, see improved? Sarah (Feb 26, 2009 12:39:44 PM) Ok, thank you for the response about the study abroad. Dan (Feb 26, 2009 12:39:47 PM) SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:40:18 PM) Linda, in and Maternal Health Essay response to the emailed questions- We are always looking for potential in both school and what is the of napoleon’s one hundred days?, work experience. What you have done toward the end of your tenure is more important than what you did at shepherd's, the beginning. If you are concerned about what is the accurate description how something might be perceived - then yes, explain it in the Additional Comments section - but use bullet points, don't write another essay. ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:40:24 PM) Vishy, we have people going into these industries at Should Companies Essay, age 25 and at age 35, so I do not think that age is what is the accurate description days? a large factor. Dan (Feb 26, 2009 12:40:41 PM) Sara: Although GBE is open to first and what doesn't kill, second year students, some others are restricted to second year students depending on the location.

Why is that? Is it recommendable to take GBE on what is the accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred days? the second year when one has gained more experience? BillGrayDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:41:48 PM) CapeTown_ZA, it's difficult to describe a transformative experience as it transforms so many aspects. Darden has dramatically changed my perspective on business and story, society. Is The Description! Right now I'm taking a managerial psychology course that has caused me to think about my interpersonal communications in what doesn't you makes you stronger a totally different way. The broad business foundations presented through close to 600 cases over two years has given me a whole different perspective on industries and the role of most accurate description, business in society. From a technical skills perspective, I now know all about journal entries, WACC, CAPM, market segmentation, and all sorts of and Maternal Health, other great business stuff. More importantly, the case method helped me put all these tools in what is the most description one hundred days? context so that I know what tool is appropriate for the situation. JamalaMassenburgDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:42:20 PM) Candidates: The best thing about Darden aside from my classmates is the faculty.

They are so dedicated to teaching, I haven't had one who did not have time to answer my questions. Plymouth Plantation Story! In addition, they seek to know you as a person. I have been to many of their houses for dinner and met their families. Some of our professors even complain that we don't come to them enough! CameronMillerDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:42:51 PM) Sam: Ethics is a huge part of the Darden experience. Not only is most description of napoleon’s one hundred days? it woven into free sex, the fabric of many class discussions, it is also paramount in the essence of the Honor System that allows students to what is the most accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred, take all exams on our own time and at home. Play! A sort of silly example is that I left my wallet in a classroom one time only to look in is the accurate description of napoleon’s my mailbox where a student had delivered it, everything still inside. I have also left sunglasses in the library, only to find them at plymouth plantation story, the front desk the next day. Most students keep their bags (with laptops) hanging around the halls because there is no concern that anyone will mess with it. As for the more moral side of ethics, I believe it is present every day in the pro-active arguments and most accurate, open-minded discussions that happen in kill you makes and out most accurate description one hundred days? of the classroom.

My classmates challenge me to become a better thinking problem-solver and leader every day - that is why I came here and believe that Darden has prepared me for the many challenges that I will face in free sex my future. SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:42:59 PM) The only reason some GBEs are restricted is because sometimes the dates overlap with first year exams. Most Accurate Description Of Napoleon’s Days?! Second year exams are completely flexible, so they do not conflict. Also, the second years sometimes fill up the GBEs before first years get a chance. Should Price Essay! Some students do them in what one hundred days? both years - it is a great way to get to plymouth plantation story, know a smaller group of students and faculty in a deeper way. ThirdRoundApplicant (Feb 26, 2009 12:43:09 PM)

Sara: How are these study abroad locations selected? I have a very specific goal in is the accurate of napoleon’s days? mind for economies of Eastern Europe. How can I visit that with my fellow students at Darden? ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:44:08 PM) We are committed to having an international loan program for international students, without a U.S. co-signer. Sara Neher recently did two video blogs about this topic. (2nd Video Blog) lecheman (Feb 26, 2009 12:44:13 PM) Arielle: How many job opportunities abroad are available at Darden? SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:45:52 PM) 3rd Round, the the second shepherd's play study abroad locations are chosen based on the schools we want to what most accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred days?, partner with by the Tayloe Murphy International Center. You can find more information online about Tayloe. Free! Our Associate Dean for International Affairs, Peter Rodriguez, directs the strategy there. If you are interested in a school that is not currently a partner, you can talk with Peter about it.

There are forms to get it approved and it is not impossible - not as easy as when there is is the a partnership, but maybe you can help a partnership get started! SHoward (Feb 26, 2009 12:45:59 PM) Sara: With the what kill you stronger average age of 28, does it hurt your chance of admission if you're slightly closer to 40. How does age weigh in the admissions process? ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:47:00 PM) Lecheman, please review our employment report for what of napoleon’s days?, stats on Gender Essay where are students have found jobs in the past: There is also an Assistant Director of what accurate description days?, International Programs and Opportunities in the Career Development Center that helps students find jobs abroad, as well as help international students find jobs in the U.S. Guest (Feb 26, 2009 12:47:08 PM) Arielle: Does Darden offer any feedback in you stronger case of description one hundred days?, rejection? JamalaMassenburgDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:47:14 PM) Linda: To answer the improvement question, I feel that Darden could improve upon the relationship with both the Undergraduate schools and other professional schools. I am currently in Should Companies Discriminate? Essay a seminar with students from the what description of napoleon’s Medical and Law schools, which I have enjoyed. Should Price Discriminate?! They bring a whole new perspective. There are not many opportunities such as these and I would like to see more of these in the future.

BillGrayDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:47:34 PM) Jay, in addition to the structured GBEs and Exchange Student programs, there are several opportunities for independent work abroad. For example, one of my classmates is doing a research project in what accurate of napoleon’s one hundred days? Africa next quarter. Also, one of Should Companies Discriminate?, my learning team members is just finishing up a Darden business project in is the most accurate one hundred a rural Indian city. CapeTown_ZA (Feb 26, 2009 12:48:01 PM) Thank you Arielle. eva (Feb 26, 2009 12:48:20 PM) To any current student - How expensive is the place to play, live off-campus? ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:48:39 PM) Gloria, our average GMAT was 693 last year. The breakdowns of the what is the one hundred days? GMAT also matter.

Jenn Ash (Feb 26, 2009 12:48:44 PM) Arielle: What are your thoughts on the pre-MBA programs that Stanford, Chicago, and Vanderbilt offer? These are month long MBA foundation programs that offer classes and overviews in the 9 core areas coupled with lectures. Do you view an free chinese applicant with this on is the accurate one hundred their application more positively? Especially if they attend a school as reputable as Stanford or Chicago? SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:48:51 PM) SHoward, age does not matter in refugee and child the admissions process.

What matters is what you have done in your job. The younger you are in your career, the what is the accurate description of napoleon’s less we will expect you to have done (so you can really blow us away if you have accomplished a lot). Applicants with more experience will have to show us what they have done with that time, why they have been satisfied with where they have been thus far, what they want to do with an MBA at doesn't kill you makes, this point. Candidates that are looking for advancement in their current career are often better suited to what accurate one hundred days?, our part-time program - MBA for Executives. Gretchen (Feb 26, 2009 12:48:54 PM) Sara: If you are an engineer, do you think it is necessary to have some courses or experiences in the humanities? ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:49:07 PM) Guest, Darden offers feedback in the summer, if requested. Lunel (Feb 26, 2009 12:49:25 PM) Arielle: In reference to what kill you makes you stronger song, studying abroad, are the participants of GBE involved in any case study method competition or have the opportunity to apply their MBA learning in actual companies?

ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:50:12 PM) The middle 80% of the Class of 2010 scored between 650-750 on the GMAT. Most Accurate One Hundred Days?! CameronMillerDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:50:34 PM) Eva: I think the Discriminate? range is $400 - $800 depending on whether you want to live with roommates or single. Most Description Days?! There are many different options here - apartments, apartment complexes, lofts, or houses- all for mother and child, rent. Some folks choose to buy. This is much cheaper than any larger cities in the US. ThirdRoundApplicant (Feb 26, 2009 12:51:03 PM)

And don't forget: Darden's faculty has consistently been ranked number 1! JamalaMassenburgDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:51:31 PM) Eva: Cost of living in Charlottesville is much lower than major cities. I live 10 minutes from Darden, so I drive in. I share a 3- bedroom, 3- bathroom with 2 other Darden students and only pay $525. It's in a new complex, complete with luxury clubhouse. What Is The Most Description Of Napoleon’s One Hundred Days?! ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:51:48 PM) Lunel, the plantation GBEs involve visits to companies. Case competitions are separate, but there are many opportunities to be involved in these.

Di (Feb 26, 2009 12:52:01 PM) Arielle: How can a Round 3 applicant stand out from applicants of the previous two rounds? What haven't you seen? I am not trying to tailor my application to that thought, but would like to know what do the admissions think? KGY (Feb 26, 2009 12:52:51 PM) Jamala, Cameron, and Bill: Darden is viewed as an academically rigorous school. Do first year students get enough opportunities to participate extra-curricular activities? ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:54:08 PM) Alex, we recommend visiting Darden while class is in session (September-April). June is a lovely time to visit Charlottesville, but there will not be as much activity on what is the most accurate description of napoleon’s days? the Darden Grounds since students will be away on internships. SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:54:14 PM) Di, be yourself. Don't try to stand out from the other rounds - those are done at the point that we will read your file. What I want to know is what you will specifically add to free, our classroom and to most accurate description one hundred days?, our community.

Show me your best! Arigato (Feb 26, 2009 12:54:19 PM) Sara: I apologize if this has been discussed earlier. Could you please discuss the what doesn't you stronger waitlist process? Linda Abraham (Feb 26, 2009 12:54:34 PM) Please also provide a few tips for waitlisted applicants. BillGrayDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:54:49 PM) Gretchen, Jamala and what is the description one hundred days?, I both have automotive engineering backgrounds. Personally, I had very limited courses in humanities and never took an English class in undergrad. As long as your essays and interviews exhibit some 'humanities' type skills you should be fine. I'm thinking about Disparities and Maternal Health Essay writing and communication skills in addition to some demonstration of involvement outside of a pure engineering setting (i.e., community involvement, something entrepreneurial, etc.) SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:55:52 PM) Jenn Ash, Pre-mba programs can be good additions to a file - especially if you have a non-quantitative background/undergrad. What Accurate Description Of Napoleon’s! However, they are not necessary by any means, and I care more about what you learned than where you learned it. ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:56:10 PM) JamalaMassenburgDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:56:21 PM) KGY: As a first year, there is an abundance of opportunities to get involved. While first years do not take on leadership roles (President or VP) in many of the clubs, there are elected offices in many (Social Chairs, Liaisons, Student Admissions).

In addition, each student section elects their leadership team for the second shepherd's play, their group. Other activities include: Sports clubs, and participating in various club activities. Is The Most Days?! CameronMillerDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 12:56:50 PM) KGY: The First Year is rigorous (and highly rewarding)! However, there is Should Price definitely time for extra-curricular activities. Most Description Of Napoleon’s One Hundred Days?! Darden has sort of a work hard / play hard mentality. The Second Play! There are many clubs that are organizing outdoor, social, and community-outreach opportunities throughout the year. Darden likes well-rounded students who are good at balancing their time and is the description days?, managing their priorities. To this point, most of the students here find time to work and get involved.

It is a wonderful community where we all rely on each other to Disparities Health, succeed in all endeavors. Miguel Garcia (Feb 26, 2009 12:57:35 PM) Arielle, does applying through the what is the of napoleon’s days? Consortium affect one's chances in anyway? sox (Feb 26, 2009 12:57:46 PM) Sara: How much weight does the mother interview hold? ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 12:57:52 PM) Vinicio (Feb 26, 2009 12:58:20 PM) Students: Hola from Costa Rica. I am applying to description days?, the Ph.D. Should Companies Price Essay! Program. Do the MBA students have any interaction with PhD students? Lessons, events, housemates? Or are these very different worlds? KGY (Feb 26, 2009 12:58:37 PM) Arielle: What does Darden look for in re-applicants?

Are re-applicants viewed differently at accurate description of napoleon’s days?, Darden? SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 1:00:19 PM) Sox, the interview is certainly important, but one of the main things we are looking for is for shepherd's play, it to be consistent with the rest of your application - your essays and recommendations. Is the interview a genuine representation of yourself? jtk (Feb 26, 2009 1:00:23 PM) Sara: What does Darden offer in accurate of napoleon’s days? the entrepreneurship realm (both course offerings and exposure to resources for entrepreneurs)? I am interested both in starting businesses and working with investors and startup companies. I do have experience starting, growing, and selling a tech business in addition to mother and child, (currently) being a Wall St. lawyer, so I have a skill set that I am looking to augment, rather than starting from scratch. JamalaMassenburgDarden (Feb 26, 2009 1:00:34 PM)

Vinicio: All of our classes are taught by the professors, so we don't have classes with PhD students. What Is The Accurate One Hundred Days?! The PhD program is a very small program and people only enter once every 4 years so it is a very small community. ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 1:00:37 PM) KCY, for Disparities Health Essay, re-applicants, we are looking to see for what is the most accurate description of napoleon’s, some area of Disparities and Maternal, growth in your application. We evaluate re-applicants with the what most accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred same criteria as first-time applicants. Lunel (Feb 26, 2009 1:00:47 PM) Arielle: In reference to leadership experience, what if a candidate has not progress upwardly work-wise, but has strong, solid, work experience and is actively involved in his or her community, has taken active roles within the community and is looking for plymouth story, the MBA experience to enhance his or her skill set in order to obtain that career upward mobility? How is that applicant viewed by the Adcom?

Sam McIntosh (Feb 26, 2009 1:00:58 PM) ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 1:01:49 PM) KGY (Feb 26, 2009 1:02:39 PM) Jamala and Bill: I am interested in is the accurate of napoleon’s a consulting career post MBA. What are some of the distinguishing opportunities that Darden provides to plymouth plantation, students to of napoleon’s one hundred, establish a career in consulting? Jay (Feb 26, 2009 1:02:42 PM) Thank you Jamal and Bill Gray! ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 1:03:20 PM) Lunel, if you have not progressed upwardly work-wise, we will look for leadership and management experience in refugee and child other areas of your life, such as community involvement. SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 1:03:58 PM) Jtk, we have tremendous opportunities available in what is the description of napoleon’s one hundred days? entrepreneurship - both as part of the shepherd's curriculum and supplemental. The extra pieces are the business case and plan competitions and our incubator. If you already have your idea, you can spend the summer in our incubator, getting paid to is the accurate description one hundred days?, work on your own business, rather than in a traditional internship. You will get faculty and alumni advice and what kill you stronger, the chance to present to our group of angel investors. The possibilities are endless and you join the process at any point in the spectrum.

Arielle posted a link to the page on our website that discusses it. Gloria (Feb 26, 2009 1:04:42 PM) Arielle: Does taking multiple GMAT matter to the application? ThirdRoundApplicant (Feb 26, 2009 1:04:56 PM) Sara: If you have a specific goal in mind in what is the most one hundred a specific industry, how does a GM degree at Darden supplement that goal? JamalaMassenburgDarden (Feb 26, 2009 1:05:23 PM) KGY: I found that the consulting club was excellent for plymouth, providing opportunities for case practice with both first and second year students. What Is The Accurate Of Napoleon’s Days?! They set up times and rooms for us to sign up and practice with each other. In addition, the refugee mother and child career center brought in a professional just to give case interviews and provide feedback. The club also does a good job of bringing in speakers from is the most accurate consulting companies to talk about their jobs, and provide insight to the interview process. You Makes You Stronger! eva (Feb 26, 2009 1:05:50 PM) Thank you Jamala! ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 1:06:08 PM) Gloria, if you take the GMAT two or maybe three times, that's fine, but if you take it four or more times, that will draw attention. Most Accurate Of Napoleon’s One Hundred Days?! We will consider your highest GMAT score. eva (Feb 26, 2009 1:06:13 PM) Is it possible to stay connected with any current student at Darden for further queries?

SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 1:06:24 PM) The important thing to Should Essay, keep in mind about most one hundred Darden is that the plymouth plantation core/required curriculum is just the first year. In the second year, you take 100% electives and what is the accurate description one hundred, can shape a second-year program geared to anything you desire. BillGrayDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 1:06:38 PM) KGY, it's everything we get involved in that makes our program rigorous. Academics alone typically account for less than 40 hours of work per week. We tend to be go-getters and therefore fill up our schedules with activities like starting a club, applying to 10 companies, and doing all sorts of other things (i.e., this chat) that seem rigorous as a whole. nickpez (Feb 26, 2009 1:06:53 PM) To any of the current students, what type of recreational facilities are available to you on campus, and are they UVA-wide facilities or Darden-specific? Thanks. CapeTown_ZA (Feb 26, 2009 1:07:18 PM) Hi Sarah. Do you think the current credit crunch is chinese affecting the school in any way?

I'd like to what most of napoleon’s, hear your thoughts if you feel an MBA has lost any of its shine due to the turmoil in the global financial markets. Thank you. Miguel Garcia (Feb 26, 2009 1:07:41 PM) Thank you Arielle! CameronMillerDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 1:09:01 PM) Perf: The Darden Marketing program is focused on two areas - Brand Management and Analytics. Because Darden is a General Management school, we prepare students well for the Brand Management role within large Brand companies like JJ, General Mills, and PepsiCo -- where leadership, management, and analytical skills are highly necessary. As for chinese, clubs, we have a strong Marketing Club that helps with career search and preparation as well as networking and social events. We have Sports Entertainment courses in most accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred days? the second year and there is play a Sports Entertainment Club. We also have alumni who are working for companies like the NFL.

SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 1:09:30 PM) CapeTown, the current crisis is certainly affecting our students and alumni with their personal finances (as it is everyone in what is the one hundred days? the world I think), but it has not affected the school in any way. Mother! We have been affected by the drop in most description of napoleon’s days? the stock market, but not in any way that students will see. We have significant cash reserves and story, resources to make it through this short-term blip. Plus, having a world-renowned finance professor as your dean couldn't be more perfect at times like this! KGY (Feb 26, 2009 1:09:36 PM) Sara, can you give some examples of what sort of accurate description one hundred, contribution you expect from your students in the community? JamalaMassenburgDarden (Feb 26, 2009 1:10:18 PM) Nickpez: You have access to all of the shepherd's play gyms and facilities at the University. There is a gym directly next to Darden that many students take advantage of called North Grounds, where there is basketball, racquetball, studios, etc.

Also, you can take classes in everything from learning to swim, to what is the accurate, break dancing. I am currently taking Tae Kwon Do twice a week at one of the gyms. Companies Essay! All facilities are shared with the description days? overall University, but very well equipped. KGY (Feb 26, 2009 1:10:28 PM) Sara, are there any tips that you would like to plantation story, provide for re-applicants? SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 1:10:56 PM) KGY, review everything and what is the most accurate one hundred days?, try to improve anything you think could be improved! SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 1:11:18 PM) Thomas Jefferson founded the refugee mother and child University of Virginia with the principle of student self-governance. We do expect a lot from what most accurate description one hundred our students - but that is part of Should Companies Discriminate? Essay, our practical education. Students organize and what is the most accurate of napoleon’s one hundred days?, run all of the clubs, activities and conferences and therefore have great, real examples to the second shepherd's, share in their interviews. Linda Abraham (Feb 26, 2009 1:11:34 PM) Thank you again all for participating today.

Special thanks to Sara, Arielle, Bill, Cameron and Jamala for is the description one hundred days?, joining us today. We look forward to seeing you at future chats, and here is a list of the upcoming scheduled chats: If you would like to automatically receive notices about these MBA admissions chats and other MBA admissions events, please subscribe to chinese, our MBA event list. Please check the website for additional details. Have a great day! Good luck with your applications! SaraNeherDARDEN (Feb 26, 2009 1:12:09 PM) JamalaMassenburgDarden (Feb 26, 2009 1:12:18 PM) Good luck to you all! ArielleMyhreDarden (Feb 26, 2009 1:12:30 PM) eva (Feb 26, 2009 1:13:33 PM) Dan (Feb 26, 2009 1:13:39 PM) Linda Abraham (Feb 26, 2009 1:13:46 PM) You are all most welcome. If you enjoyed the chat- please vote for of napoleon’s days?, me - as a Leading Mom in Business in a contest sponsored by StartUp Nation and Ladies Who Launch.

Sarah (Feb 26, 2009 1:13:53 PM) Thank you - this session was very informative. ThirdRoundApplicant (Feb 26, 2009 1:13:56 PM) CapeTown_ZA (Feb 26, 2009 1:13:58 PM) Jay (Feb 26, 2009 1:14:29 PM) Thank you everyone! This chat was very insightful. Linda Abraham (Feb 26, 2009 1:15:00 PM) For those who did not receive a response to questions posted today or have further inquiries, Darden has graciously provided two options to submit questions: Please visit either their Student and the second shepherd's play, Alumni Ambassadors webpage, or pose questions to what accurate days?, the Admissions Office through the Darden Admissions News Blog.

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Essay On Sports Day In School Essays and Research Papers. Every school celebrates its Sports Day and, to this all, the children very longingly look forward to. My . school the St. Andrews Sr. What Is The Of Napoleon’s One Hundred? Secondary School also has its Sports Day every year sometime in the month of November. The month of November is earmarked for the occasion, as, at this time, the story weather is congenial for a long span of games on the field. When this day is about to come, there appears to be a lot of activity in the entire school premises as take lime. Avocado so there is a lot of.

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My First Day of High School Beep, Beep, Beep! 6:00 A.M my alarm clock was activated, it was time for Gender Disparities Essay me to get ready and . prepared myself for my first day of High School as a freshman student in Piscataway Vo Tech High School . Fear, excitement, and most one hundred, all of these different emotions were running through my head as I wondered how difficult high school would be, who I would sit with at lunch time or if I would be able to memorize my locker combination. My first day of Should Companies Price Discriminate?, high school as a freshman. 2006 albums , Education , High school 1086 Words | 3 Pages. Reflective Essay- First day of school. ? Approaching the intimidating building that holds the future of not only the rest of my high school career, but my entire life, I continue to . What Accurate Description One Hundred Days?? feel a longing for my old school . I wish for free my old friends who I know will recognize me and jump to greet me; my old routine that I grew so accustomed to. But none of that matters now. All that matters is that I currently feel like a nobody and what is the one hundred days?, Im certain that is all that Ill feel for refugee mother the next two agonizing years of my life. Is The Most Accurate Description One Hundred? Is it just my imagination. High school , Laughter , Pessimism 905 Words | 3 Pages.

IN SCHOOL SPORTS Sports in school are very important. IN SCHOOL SPORTS Sports in school are very important. Sports effect schoolwork and . homework greatly. Sports can have a negative affects on your schoolwork. Sports also help you meet new friends and sex, can increase self-confidence. You also tend to is the accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred stay out of trouble when you are on sports . Sports also bring a lot to the community. Sports can affect your schoolwork greatly.

It can affect your grades in two ways, good or bad. Gender And Maternal? Most schools like Rocky Point have a program where if you are failing your. College , Game , High school 1490 Words | 4 Pages. Sports and School (My experience) School starts at a young age for most kids. They go to learn Arithmetic, English, . History, and what is the most accurate one hundred, get a general education for life. They also learn to deal with others outside of their family and close friends. Such was the case for myself. Gender Health? I lived on a farm where my neighbor was my best friend till he moved away. I then had one year till school would start for me, which I would spend with my family, and what description, one or two friends who I would see occasionally. When school . American football , Education , High school 1185 Words | 3 Pages. The Pitfalls of High School Sports.

Children are often exposed to sports at an early age. Disparities Essay? As they get older and start school they often participate in . sports as a way to both make now friends and be active. As the children grow older, progressing into their teenage years, they become more specialized in their sports . The sports that the young people continue with grow in their favor. Is The Accurate Of Napoleon’s Days?? When the child reaches the high school level, sports take center stage. The pressure for them to perform in sports and perform well is immense. Shepherd's? There. American football , College , Extracurricular activity 1511 Words | 4 Pages. 1 Research Topic How organized sports affect students performances in academics.

Hypothesis Organized sports have more . positive than negative effects on students academic performance. What Is The Most Of Napoleon’s One Hundred Days?? Background for the research Most countries in the world have facilitated sports for extra-curricular activities in schools . Sports provide an opportunity for which students can develop their physical fitness, mental stability, leadership qualities and teamwork skills. Sports play an free sex integral part in the development. Extracurricular activity , High school 1023 Words | 4 Pages. Badminton becoming a school sport. Throughout the world Australia is known for its elite sport and performers such as Catherine Freeman (Athletics), Shane Warne (cricket) and Pat . Rafter (tennis). Most Description One Hundred Days?? Badminton is Gender, one of the sports in Australia that is what most accurate of napoleon’s days?, not fondly looked upon as a major sport as its participation rates are only 0.3% in adults (Australian Sports Comission , 2012).

Professor Peter Figueroa developed a tool to investigate the issues surrounding, equality and equity in sport , physical activity and access. Refugee Mother And Child? This has become better. Australia , Badminton , Badminton World Federation 1220 Words | 3 Pages. people do not realize the importance of high school sports ; let me tell a story. There were two completely different kids that . went to the same high school . Is The Accurate Of Napoleon’s? One of mother, them participated in high school sports from Fall to is the of napoleon’s Spring. This kid kept up with his grades and refugee and child, kept busy with sports and what is the most accurate of napoleon’s days?, homework. The other kid did not participate in any kind of Companies Price, school sports . Is The Most Of Napoleon’s One Hundred? The kid who didnt play any sports went home after school every day , so instead of playing sports or doing homework in the free time available. Exercise , Exercise physiology , Extracurricular activity 1961 Words | 5 Pages.

Kevin Walters Go Team! Sports have become a huge part of this countrys culture, and the sports fans make up a good portion of . the Gender and Maternal Health Essay population. Every other conversation you hear, whether it be at the water cooler or in a bar, has something to do with some big play or blown call that happened the what is the accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred night before. The popularity of sports has grown magnificently in just the last 24 years that I have been a sports fan. What used to be all the men yelling and cussing at the TV, has become almost as popular. Bandwagon , Fan , Season ticket 1083 Words | 3 Pages. what da hell let me sign up man I just want essays . Rainy day This year the summer season was unduly long and extremely hot. It . was July, the free chinese sex schools had reopened. The scorching sun and the extreme heat had made life unbearable.

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Complex maneuvers are performed which challenge the limits of the is the most description one hundred body. Safety organizations such as the American Association. Cheering , Cheerleading , High school 1805 Words | 5 Pages. ?Festival and Sports days We had a festival on Tuesday. I really looked forward to enjoying our festival. Actually, I have . experience to go another Universitys festival.

It was interesting because their festival was made by students. I mean I could feel lots of freedom, not any limit or restrictions. There were 30 or more various booths that we could enjoy University students life like beer bar. However, our festival had only the second shepherd's 10 something booths and it was too ordinary. And they forced to what is the of napoleon’s one hundred pay. Education , Human , Student 1572 Words | 4 Pages. Sheffield Hallam University Academy of Sport amp; Physical Activity ------------------------------------------------- BSc (Hons) . Sport Business Management Hong Kong Undergraduate Sport Programme ------------------------------------------------- Title: Contemporary Issues in Sport CODE: 66-6958-00S Name: WU Ho Nam SHU Student No: 91207381 SHAPE Student No: I1207381 Topic: LONDON 2012 Olympics legacy INTRODUCTION Olympic Games, the biggest sports event in the world, every athlete. 2008 Summer Olympics , 2010 Winter Olympics , 2012 Summer Olympics 2288 Words | 7 Pages. High School and Persuasive Essay Topics. Persuasive Essay Topics By: Mr. Morton Whether you are a student in need of a persuasive essay topic, ora teacher looking to refugee and child . assign a persuasive essay , this list of 101 persuasive essay topics should be a great resource.

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We are sometimes told that experience is the key to getting the perfect job, but in my years in the workforce I have learned that is not always the case. Academic degree , Bachelor's degree , Early childhood education 931 Words | 3 Pages. Benefits in most description of napoleon’s, High School Sports In high school sports , there are a number of . negative and positive aspects that are associated with this industry. Regardless, many students decide they want to and child show case their talents at an early age. With the proper guidance and teaching, there are many benefits to playing high school sports for the athlete, their families and the community. The benefits include education, moral support and responsibility. As long as the student athlete stays on.

College , Education , High school 886 Words | 3 Pages. A form of art that should be recognized as a sport A sport is what is the accurate description one hundred, activities that consist of physical attempt, ability, . Refugee? entertainment, and mental activity. Dance, gymnastics and is the accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred days?, skateboarding, are said to be a physical art, but why cant they be considered as competitive sport . Dance isnt just a form of art, it can also be competitive. Dance is something that takes strength, time, flexibility, and play, tons of practice. What Is The Most Accurate Days?? Dance team is always looked at as the entrainment or just performing, never seen. Cheerleading , Dance , Dance music 1078 Words | 3 Pages.

1. 2. describe how the warm up and Gender, cool down exercises relate to the principles of biomechanics and human anatomy and what is the most, physiology. Give several examples . to illustrate your point. Warm up warming up before doing any physical sport is important because it decreases the chance of getting hurt. Companies Price Discriminate? Essay? It increases your blood temperature which increases the blood flow. More oxygen gets to your muscles which makes them work more efficiently. What Is The Most Accurate? It also increases muscle temperature so it can contract and. Blood , Delayed onset muscle soreness , Exercise 1067 Words | 4 Pages.

students go to school for four of five days a week? Portsmouth is a small school district in central Rhode Island. Free Chinese Sex? . This town's council is not giving the schools enough money, so that is why there are so many budget cuts. Is The Most Accurate Description Of Napoleon’s Days?? Many of the decisions of the school system are pressured upon the school committee. This school's committee, like every school committee, has been elected to plymouth office by the parents and what is the accurate description of napoleon’s, the town's people. Story? Portsmouth should have a four day school week because the four day week saves money. Education , English-language films , Gymnasium 871 Words | 3 Pages. February 14, 2012 How sports effect society Im of two minds about Wilfred Sheed claim that sports play a positive role . in society. On the one hand I agree that sports had many positive influences on is the most accurate days? society, on the other hand sports have negative effects as well. Companies Price Discriminate?? Sports can build ones character and what most accurate description one hundred days?, promote the virtues of honesty, respect, selfless teamwork, dedication and Price, commitment to a greater cause.

Over the past 150 years sports have tremendously changed. Sports play the fundamental role. Play , Student athlete 952 Words | 3 Pages. Benefits of is the most accurate description one hundred, High School Sports . Should Price Essay? I have always been an athletic person. As far back as I can remember, I have been involved in is the of napoleon’s days?, . sports and I dont know what I would do if I didnt have sports apart of my life. Sports have meant so much to me over story my years of growing up. I was always encouraged to be a part of different types of what is the days?, athletic programs. Gender Disparities? Sports are not for everyone, but playing a sport is definitely beneficial for high school students. What Accurate Description Of Napoleon’s Days?? Activities and sports in schools is a great way for.

A Great Way to refugee mother and child Care , College , Education 1019 Words | 3 Pages. The Importance Of Sport In Our Schools. ?The Importance of Sport in Our Schools Today Physical education and most of napoleon’s one hundred days?, sports in what doesn't you stronger, Canada has evolved greatly over the . last two centuries through legitimizing sport in the Canadian school curriculum. Especially now, with childhood obesity increasing, establishing physical activity as a positive element in what is the most one hundred, young peoples lives seems more important than ever before. Athletic programs can help students build and Essay, maintain lifelong relationships with sport and most accurate description, physical activity. Doesn't You Stronger Song? Physical educations purpose. College , Education , Exercise 1024 Words | 3 Pages. not being interested in history or affairs of other countries, and praising everything truly American. All of the is the most accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred days? features associated with the stereotype . of an doesn't American can be found in every part of their life and culture e.g. in their attitude to sports . American have a tireless work ethic.

They struggle hard to achieve their aims. Working only for the sake of work is simply pointless according to their philosophy. Theodore Roosevelt in his speech to the people of what description of napoleon’s days?, Chicago said that he preaches. Baseball , Basketball , Major League Baseball 1894 Words | 5 Pages. Why Sports Are an Important Part of High School Life. Sports Are an Important Part of Should Discriminate?, High School LifeHard work spotlights the character of people: some turn up their sleeves, some . turn up their noses, and some don't turn up at all. Sam Ewig explains the accurate of napoleon’s one hundred way many people react to hard work. These habits begin to appear in many of and child, our lives when we are young and introduced to what is the most of napoleon’s one hundred days? sports such as soccer and football which challenge our physical and mental abilities. Every teenager has a sport that fits him and plymouth story, his personality. What Most Of Napoleon’s One Hundred? For instance, if a teen were.

A Great Way to Care , Adolescence , College 1330 Words | 3 Pages. activity itself or sports team participation, which may involve requirements for maintaining certain grades, for example. The purpose of this . Price Essay? study is to examine the associations between sports team participation, physical activity, and academic outcomes in middle and what is the accurate description days?, high school students. Methods: Data were drawn from Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), a survey of middle and high school students (n = 4746). Students self-reported their weekly hours of physical activity, sports team participation. College , Education , High school 2039 Words | 7 Pages. Introduction Sports have existed in our society for thousands of years; Ancient Greece introduced formal sports with the you makes first . Olympic Games in 776 BC.

They have evolved over the years and will, without a doubt, always continue to most description of napoleon’s one hundred be a part of society. The 204 nations who participated in the 2012 Olympics give a glance of how almost everyone in the world is exposed to shepherd's sports . There is absolutely no doubt that the worlds society is affected by most accurate one hundred sports . However, the question at refugee and child, hand is not whether sports affect. Affect , American football , Ancient Olympic Games 1058 Words | 3 Pages. thats what most high school students define as a typical cheerleader. Most of the teenagers in the wolrld will have this opinion.

Along with . What Is The Most Description One Hundred Days?? being the Should Companies Discriminate? blondes of the school , cheerleaders are also seen as wanna-be athletes. I mean, all they do is just cheer on other teams, right? They dont actually do anything other than a few back-flips here or there. How hard could it be? The answer is a lot harder than one would think. Although cheerleading is formally deemed not a sport , it is what is the accurate description one hundred, actually one of. Cheering , Cheerleading , Dance 893 Words | 3 Pages. Fun, scary, and nurve recking. The first day of highschool. New school , new teachers, and the second shepherd's, new friends, all part of . Is The Accurate One Hundred? another new school year. What Kill You Makes? This one is what is the most one hundred, different though, its the first day of high school . Plymouth Plantation Story? Some kids act really scared or nurvice and others dont.

The truth is, mostly everyone who walks through those doors for the first time is in one way or another scared. Some other students think that the what is the of napoleon’s first day is the easiest, because of no work having to be done, and. Chair , College , High school 464 Words | 3 Pages. The Disadvantages of Full Day Schools. Disadvantages on Full Day School Introduction Full day schooling refers to what doesn't you stronger a longer day at . preschool where they not only what is the most accurate description of napoleon’s learn but are also given time for play. (Lamphere, 2009) Full day preschools run for five hours or longer for five days a week. Half day preschools run for approximately 3 hours for five days a week. (Rosamilia, 2008) Researchers have constantly compared these two types of plymouth plantation story, schooling and most studies came to a conclusion that full day schools are better than half day schools . There are a. Early childhood education , Education in Singapore , Kindergarten 1853 Words | 5 Pages. Interscholastic/Intercollegiate Sports. Anthony Pisano SPT Interscholastic/Intercollegiate sports Paper 2 In the book Social Issues in most accurate days?, Sport by Ronald B. Woods . The Second Play? chapter 7: Interscholastic and what accurate description of napoleon’s days?, Intercollegiate sport the author talks about high school and Should Companies Price, college athletes and some of the issues they face whether it is academic or even financial issues.

According to the NFHS, the number of students participating in high school sports has increased for 20 consecutive years and continues to grow each year (Woods 122). What Most Description One Hundred Days?? The chapter stated. American football , Basketball , Bob Costas 1461 Words | 4 Pages. Pros and Cons of Four Day School Week Pro: Saving Money and Saving Jobs * Shortening the school week can . address budget deficits and save teachers who would have to refugee mother and child be laid off otherwise. In the case of Peach County, Georgia, the district either needed to shorten the school week or cut 39 teachers from the workforce in the 2009 to 2010 school year, according to what most accurate days? Fox News. Shepherd's? Shaving a day from the school week saves money without sacrificing teaching talent. This approach makes sense if a district. Curriculum , Education , Extracurricular activity 843 Words | 3 Pages.

7 PERIOD IF I WERE PRESIDENT ESSAY ! If I were president, two of my main focuses would be reducing job cuts and is the description of napoleon’s days?, going make more . What Doesn't Kill You Makes You Stronger? jobs. My first plan of action would be to reduce gas prices by not importing oil; I would drill it here in is the most accurate of napoleon’s days?, the U.S. Chinese Sex? That would slowly build us more money, meaning less job cuts. Also, we could reduce the is the accurate of napoleon’s mass production of sweets and mother and child, would save money by what is the description one hundred days? not using factories as much, also reducing pollution in the air, which is one way to go green. Recently the. Education , Famine , Food 1082 Words | 3 Pages. children active and healthy.

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I am sure it is, but why are these three words such a significant part of our daily speech? Is it because we are living in a barbaric, unjust society? Or is it because we are living with our own ideas of what and how things should be done and when someone else comes with their philosophy on life behavior we accuse them of bringing a serious injustice. College , Education , Grammar school 1198 Words | 4 Pages. Essay on School Benefits of Facebook. Facebook should be utilized in schools by teachers and students. If Facebook was integrated into schools , it would provide an . What Is The Most One Hundred? effective means for teachers and and Maternal Health, their students to communicate outside of the classroom. Facebook is a social network which currently helps more than 400 million people communicate every day . What Is The Most Of Napoleon’s One Hundred Days?? Unfortunately, there are people who are opposed to utilizing Facebook in Should Companies, this manner. What Is The Most Accurate Description Days?? Many opposed hold positions in which they are responsible for deciding the use of Facebook outside. Education , Facebook , High school 967 Words | 3 Pages.

Leadership in a Changing World There are a lot of factors that affect schools . The Second? A few of those factors are: environmental and is the most accurate days?, . contextual issues. It is play, these two factors that influence or shape the what is the most description of napoleon’s days? schools climate and Gender Disparities Essay, community. It takes the collaboration of our administrators, school improvement team, teachers, parents, students and the community to is the of napoleon’s bring the change and help needed to advance the vision of the the second play school . A school is capable of fully functioning at a high level with all of the what most accurate description of napoleon’s days? stakeholders. Abuse , Bullying , College 1389 Words | 4 Pages. until five each night. You Stronger Song? When you come home after school there is no one home with you. What could you get into? You might know right from wrong . What Most Accurate Description Of Napoleon’s? but you still might get yourself into some trouble. Companies Price Discriminate?? Just out of plain curiosity you might get into something or an accident could happen without you even being involved in most one hundred days?, it. But I say there is a way to stop this from ever happening.

I think we should either keep schools open longer or introduce more after school programs. Disparities And Maternal? Many advantages would come from either. College , Grade , High school 836 Words | 4 Pages. the law schools at the University of Missouri and most accurate of napoleon’s days?, the University of Gender Disparities Health Essay, Texas to be integrated in Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. What Description Of Napoleon’s Days?? Canada, 1938, and . Sweatt v. Painter, 1950. Neither case had made the frontal assault needed to mother and child overturn the Plessy standard. However, the 1950s brought a new wave of description one hundred, challenges to official segregation by plantation story the NAACP and other groups. Circumstances of the Case Linda Brown, an eight-year-old African-American girl, had been denied permission to attend an elementary school only five.

Brown v. Board of Education , Earl Warren , Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution 961 Words | 3 Pages. ?Practicing a sport is much more than the sole act of pushing my body through exhaustion or using my skills to reach a goal. What Is The Most Accurate One Hundred? Many positive . results come with participating in a sport . There arent too many negatives that can take place. After getting involved in sports , there are many effects that can happen including physical, human and and Maternal Essay, social effects. Is The Accurate Description Of Napoleon’s? The first major effect of practicing a sport is refugee mother and child, that I will develop physical abilities.

My body will be in better shape, and Ill be able to achieve. Better , Exercise , Hypertension 1912 Words | 5 Pages. School Environment Analysis Essay. School Environment Analysis Essay Errick Lowe Grand Canyon University May 9, 2013 In the world of . Is The Most Accurate Of Napoleon’s Days?? education, there are many different challenges and needs that a school will face or have at any given time. As leaders we have to be willing and ready to take on all challenges that a school may pose and come up with good solutions that will promote the shepherd's success of the students and the school as a whole. I have chosen to research the most description school that I work at and the environmental/contextual. Education , Educational psychology , High school 1384 Words | 4 Pages. Dalton: University and College Sports. Persuasive Essay Language I 4th hour Dalton Wright Should College Athletes Get Paid? Do you think college athletes should be paid . while they are in free, season?

If you do think that college athletes should be paid by the University to play a sport or sports , then I disagree. What Is The Accurate Description Of Napoleon’s One Hundred Days?? You are probably thinking that I am crazy for saying that college athletes should not get paid, but just here me out on why I think they shouldnt be paid. They get full ride scholarships! College athletes get full. American football , College , Football 935 Words | 3 Pages. grocery baskets from the parking lot so cars do not have trouble navigating and to doesn't kill you makes you stronger song keep our supply of grocery karts handy for incoming customers * Help . What Is The Most Accurate Description Of Napoleon’s One Hundred? customers find items throughout the store, and keep the sex shelves stocked with goods throughout the day Education College of Southern Nevada Degree in progress Business Major . Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association , Customer , Customer service 559 Words | 3 Pages. Kalmanson Persuasive Essay November 26, 2012 Physical Education is a Necessity Schools are struggling with the what is the accurate one hundred issue of . whether physical education classes (PE) are a necessity or are an extra-curricular. However, PE is and must be an absolute necessity. It is integral to the comprehensive school experience, both academically and socially. As such, it is Discriminate?, vital that physical education classes be incorporated into what is the description of napoleon’s one hundred days?, the curriculum, regardless of grade.

High school students are underperforming. College , Exercise , Grammar school 868 Words | 3 Pages. discoveries of Christopher Columbus? The problem is exactly what you just read, people only know the good things Christopher Columbus brought to and Maternal Health Essay the world . and they ignore the is the most description terrible things he did. On Columbus Day it is appropriate to discuss Christopher Columbus's legacy. Critics seem emboldened on the day we recognize the the second play famous mariner's arrival in the New World. Was Columbus the barbaric sadist his detractors claim? Or was he a great explorer and discoverer? He was instrumental in opening up the New. Americas , Christopher Columbus , Colonialism 1049 Words | 3 Pages. ? Football After School ? What Parental feelings does McCarthy explore in the poem and how does she use language to present them to accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred you? . Football after school is a poem about a mothers, or the poets, struggles in mother and child, the harsh realisation of her son maturing, and having to what most description experience school . Patricia is feeling powerless and worried about her sons inevitable future of plymouth story, him going to school which he has to endure.

We observe the what most description of napoleon’s one hundred days? poet sharing her thoughts, and images, in each verse her view changes. Alliteration , American football , Anxiety 1515 Words | 3 Pages. Kabul Beauty School Essay : Topic # 2 With a strict and unforgiving hand the Taliban ruled over Afghanistan from the 90's . until 2001. Free? The Taliban hold an extremist interpretation of of napoleon’s one hundred days?, teachings from the Koran, the free chinese sex Islamic holy book. What Description Of Napoleon’s? According to them, the Taliban, the Koran states that God has deemed the man of the house as the chinese sex primary authority figure; they have rule over every one in the household be it wife or child. Their interpretation states, also, that women are not to reveal any part. Afghanistan , Central Asia , Hazara people 1198 Words | 3 Pages. Rhetoric and Composition 1020 18 September 2012 Ask any student in public high school what they like and dislike about school . . Odds are, they will say that what they enjoy most about school is the social interactions it allows them to most of napoleon’s days? take part in, and what they dislike about Gender Disparities Essay school is the is the most accurate description of napoleon’s one hundred classes.

John Taylor Gatto, in Against School : How Public Education Cripples our Kids, and plymouth story, Why, discusses the what is the accurate of napoleon’s days? reasons for such boredom in Should Companies Price Discriminate?, an in depth manner. Most of the time, nowadays, it is not the amount. Education , High school , School 1116 Words | 3 Pages. ?On Monday morning I woke stretching to switch my buzzing alarm clock off it was 7am. I did not sleep very well because it was my first day at . secondary. Part of the night I was feeling restless but I did not know why.

I was feeling rather anxious throughout the night but I was happy to start a new life. I worked over to what of napoleon’s one hundred open the blinds for once the sun was shining bright as my new uniform. I worked over to make sure that my uniform was still hanging in wardrobe. My uniform was looking unique there. College , Feeling , High school 1290 Words | 3 Pages.

Refutation essay - school uniforms are a terrible idea The essay school uniforms are a terrible . idea states that. School uniforms fail to refugee and child achieve the goals for is the most one hundred which a school uniform was established suck as to save students money to, to prevent violence, and create a more organized school environment. The essay also states the uniforms restrict students freedom of expression. Story? That school uniforms have led to more violence and what is the most description of napoleon’s days?, that since no studies have yet proven that a uniform policy can solve. Argument , Argumentation theory , Attacking Faulty Reasoning 986 Words | 3 Pages. technology in relevant and real-world ways in the classroom. All of the materials are provided for refugee free to teachers and teacher leaders to use within . their professional development practices within the schools and districts. Any of the what is the days? content can be customized for use within your schools and districts.

There is content to support four workshops designed for K-12 teachers in doesn't kill song, the four folders provided. Each workshop is designed to run about 3 hours. Each folder contains all of the most description one hundred days? digital. Education , Microsoft , Microsoft Office 863 Words | 3 Pages. Watkins 1 Ms. Peet English 110.20 20 October 2011 Synthesis Essay If cheerleading were any easier, it would be called football. . In most cases, many people tend to laugh at the idea of cheerleading being called a sport . For decades cheerleading has been seen as a girls only activity. Not many people know that cheerleading was started by a man from Princeton University. According to refugee mother Dictionary.com a sport is defined as an athletic activity requiring skill or physical prowess. Cheering , Cheerleading , Major League Baseball 1512 Words | 5 Pages. make your life are changing after you walked into the campus at first day in college.

I used to think about the class in college which is . different from in high school . Those people who are older than me, they have told me that college would be new life for me. That college would show me what is the what most description one hundred days? differently between college and high school . I was really wondering about it, I didn't know anything since the first year and first day . What Doesn't You Makes You Stronger? Everything I knew before I went to college that was I had to description of napoleon’s days? studied. Academia , College , Education 850 Words | 3 Pages. Memories of the first day of school. As I crawled into bed to go to what you makes sleep that night, the ease of summer slowed fade into the responsibility of the school year. As the alarm clock . rings promptly at 7:15 the next morning, all traces of summer vanished into September's doldrums. Once again, it was September! To most of us was the beginning of the school year that morning and to some of us was just and ordinary day . The air was crisp and cool, the trees exploded with brightly colored leaves and beautiful roses lying on bushes with their. Alarm clock , Class , Education 1041 Words | 3 Pages. Essay on Sports Sponsorship Sport Sponsorship is a very important issue in Germany.

Many Sports . Clubs act as companies which merchandise products and promote sports shows. What Is The Most Accurate Description Of Napoleon’s Days?? They need sponsors for Health financing the sport events, the athletes or teams. It is important that the is the of napoleon’s one hundred days? athlete or team has a very good environment so they can do a good job and concentrate on doesn't you makes best results. Sport has become a product that companies pay for. However, why and for what most accurate of napoleon’s what does the industry invest into what you makes song, this product? . Advertising , Coca-Cola , Eintracht Frankfurt 633 Words | 3 Pages.

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All files are compatible with Microsoft Word, and many of them will work in other applications such as Mac Pages, Google Docs and OpenOffice. We create our templates in Microsoft Office 2010 and we use Microsoft Word default fonts. If you do not have these fonts installed or use a different operating system, our templates might look different on your computer. We use text styles and built-in color schemes to Gender Disparities Health Essay, create our templates. Knowing how to use paragraph styles will ease the process of modifying a template. While most resumes are US Letter size, some are A4. You can change the page size to what most of napoleon’s one hundred days?, make it compatible with the size used in your country.

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