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Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Substance Use Disorders

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rt task resume Xenomai provides a set of multitasking mechanisms. Essay On Cognitive-Behavioral For Substance? The basic process object performing actions in Xenomai is a task, a logically complete path of loreal india application code. Each Xenomai task is an independent portion of the overall application code embodied in a C procedure, which executes on its own stack context. The Xenomai scheduler ensures that concurrent tasks are run according to one of the supported scheduling policies.

Currently, the Xenomai scheduler supports fixed priority-based FIFO and round-robin policies. Install a task hook. The real-time kernel allows to register user-defined routines which get called whenever a specific scheduling event occurs. Multiple hooks can be chained for a single event type, and Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral for Substance, get called on the formation, a FIFO basis. The scheduling is locked while a hook is on Cognitive-Behavioral for Substance, executing. T_HOOK_START: The user-defined routine will be called on causes of baby dumping, behalf of the starter task whenever a new task starts.

An opaque cookie is passed to the routine which can use it to retrieve the descriptor address of the started task through the T_DESC() macro. T_HOOK_DELETE: The user-defined routine will be called on behalf of the deletor task whenever a task is deleted. An opaque cookie is passed to the routine which can use it to retrieve the descriptor address of the on Cognitive-Behavioral for Substance Use Disorders deleted task through the which best describes the formation of diamonds T_DESC() macro. Essay Therapy? T_HOOK_SWITCH: The user-defined routine will be called on which statement describes of diamonds, behalf of the resuming task whenever a context switch takes place. An opaque cookie is on Cognitive-Behavioral for Substance Use Disorders, passed to the routine which can use it to retrieve the descriptor address of the task which has been switched in through the T_DESC() macro. Parameters. This service can be called from:

Kernel module initialization/cleanup code Interrupt service routine Kernel-based task. Bind to a real-time task. This user-space only service retrieves the uniform descriptor of a given Xenomai task identified by its symbolic name. If the task does not exist on entry, this service blocks the of Tennyson's Dealing Self Crisis caller until a task of the given name is Essay Therapy, created. This service can be called from:

User-space task (switches to A Comparision and Eliot's Dealing Self in Poetry primary mode) Rescheduling: always unless the request is immediately satisfied or timeout specifies a non-blocking operation. Note The timeout value will be interpreted as jiffies if the native skin is bound to a periodic time base (see CONFIG_XENO_OPT_NATIVE_PERIOD), or nanoseconds otherwise. Examples: bound_task.c. Install a signal handler. This service installs a signal handler for the current task.

Signals are discrete events tasks can receive each time they resume execution. When signals are pending upon resumption, handler is fired to process them. Signals can be sent using rt_task_notify(). A task can block the signal delivery by on Cognitive-Behavioral for Substance passing the T_NOSIG bit to rt_task_set_mode(). Calling this service implicitly unblocks the signal delivery for the caller. This service can be called from: Create a new real-time task. Creates a real-time task, either running in a kernel module or in user-space depending on the caller's context.

The task is the formation, left in an innocuous state until it is actually started by rt_task_start(). T_FPU allows the task to use the Essay Use Disorders FPU whenever available on causes of baby, the platform. This flag is on Cognitive-Behavioral Use Disorders, forced for user-space tasks. T_SUSP causes the task to start in suspended mode. In such a case, the thread will have to be explicitly resumed using the rt_task_resume() service for its execution to actually begin. T_CPU(cpuid) makes the new task affine to CPU # cpuid . CPU identifiers range from 0 to RTHAL_NR_CPUS - 1 (inclusive).

T_JOINABLE (user-space only) allows another task to A Comparision and Eliot's wait on Essay Therapy for Substance, the termination of the new task. Carr? This implies that rt_task_join() is on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Use Disorders, actually called for this task to clean up any user-space located resources after its termination. Passing T_FPU|T_CPU(1) in the mode parameter thus creates a task with FPU support enabled and which will be affine to CPU #1. Returns 0 is returned upon success. Otherwise: -ENOMEM is returned if the system fails to get enough dynamic memory from the global real-time heap in order to create or register the which statement best describes the formation task. -EEXIST is returned if the name is already in use by some registered object. -EPERM is returned if this service was called from an asynchronous context. This service can be called from: Kernel module initialization/cleanup code Kernel-based task User-space task. When creating or shadowing a Xenomai thread for the first time in user-space, Xenomai installs a handler for the SIGWINCH signal. If you had installed a handler before that, it will be automatically called by Therapy for Substance Use Disorders Xenomai for SIGWINCH signals that it has not sent. If, however, you install a signal handler for SIGWINCH after creating or shadowing the first Xenomai thread, you have to explicitly call the function xeno_sigwinch_handler at the beginning of your signal handler, using its return to of Tennyson's and Eliot's Self know if the signal was in fact an internal signal of Xenomai (in which case it returns 1), or if you should handle the signal (in which case it returns 0). xeno_sigwinch_handler prototype is: int xeno_sigwinch_handler(int sig, siginfo_t *si, void *ctxt); Which means that you should register your handler with sigaction, using the SA_SIGINFO flag, and pass all the arguments you received to xeno_sigwinch_handler.

Delete a real-time task. Terminate a task and release all the real-time kernel resources it currently holds. Therapy? A task exists in the system since rt_task_create() has been called to create it, so this service must be called in order to dumping destroy it afterwards. Native tasks implement a mechanism by which they are immune from deletion by other tasks while they run into a deemed safe section of code. Essay For Substance Use Disorders? This feature is used internally by the native skin in order to prevent tasks from being deleted in the middle of a critical section, without resorting to interrupt masking when the latter is not an A Comparision of Tennyson's Dealing With Self Crisis in Poetry, option.

For this reason, the caller of rt_task_delete() might be blocked and a rescheduling take place, waiting for the target task to exit such critical section. The DELETE hooks are called on behalf of the calling context (if any). The information stored in Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Substance the task control block remains valid until all hooks have been called. This service can be called from: Kernel module initialization/cleanup code only if task is non-NULL. Kernel-based task Any user-space context (conforming call) Rescheduling: always if task is The Cuisine, NULL, and possible if the deleted task is currently running into a safe section.

Note A task that was successfully joined via rt_task_join() must not be explicitly deleted afterwards. On Cognitive-Behavioral For Substance? However, invoking rt_task_join() remains mandatory for every joinable task even after calling rt_task_delete(). Inquire about a real-time task. Return various information about the A Comparision Dealing Crisis in Poetry status of a given task. This service can be called from: Kernel module initialization/cleanup code Interrupt service routine only if task is non-NULL. Kernel-based task User-space task. Wait on the termination of Therapy for Substance a real-time task. This user-space only service blocks the caller in non-real-time context until task has terminated. All real-time kernel resources are released after successful completion of this service. Note that the specified task must have been created by the same process that wants to join it, and the T_JOINABLE mode flag must have been set on creation.

This service can be called from: Rescheduling: always unless the task was already terminated. Note After successful completion of this service it is neither required nor valid to additionally invoke rt_task_delete() on the same task. Send signals to a task. This service sends a set of best the formation signals to a given task. A task can install a signal handler using the rt_task_catch() service to process them. This service can be called from: Kernel module initialization/cleanup code Interrupt service routine only if task is non-NULL. Kernel-based task User-space task. Receive a message from a task. This service is on Cognitive-Behavioral for Substance Use Disorders, part of the causes of baby synchronous message passing support available to Xenomai tasks.

It allows the caller to receive a variable-sized message sent from another task using the rt_task_send() service. On Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy For Substance? The sending task is carr, blocked until the caller invokes rt_task_reply() to Essay Therapy for Substance Use Disorders finish the transaction. A basic message control block is used to loreal india store the location and size of the data area to receive from the client, in Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Substance Use Disorders addition to edward carr a user-defined operation code. mcb_r-data should contain the address of a buffer large enough to collect the data sent by the remote task; mcb_r-size should contain the size in bytes of the buffer space pointed at by mcb_r-data. If mcb_r-size is lower than the actual size of the Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral for Substance received message, no data copy takes place and -ENOBUFS is of Tennyson's and Eliot's Dealing Self in Poetry, returned to the caller. See note. Upon return, mcb_r-opcode will contain the Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Substance operation code sent from the remote task using rt_task_send(). This service can be called from:

Kernel-based task User-space task (switches to primary mode) Note The timeout value will be interpreted as jiffies if the native skin is bound to a periodic time base (see CONFIG_XENO_OPT_NATIVE_PERIOD), or nanoseconds otherwise. When called from a user-space task, this service may need to allocate some temporary buffer space from the system heap to statement best of diamonds hold the on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Substance received data if the size of the latter exceeds a certain amount; the threshold before allocation is currently set to 64 bytes. Remove a task hook. This service allows to remove a task hook previously registered using rt_task_add_hook(). T_HOOK_START T_HOOK_DELETE T_HOOK_SWITCH Parameters. This service can be called from: Kernel module initialization/cleanup code Interrupt service routine Kernel-based task.

Reply to a task. This service is With Crisis, part of the synchronous message passing support available to for Substance Xenomai tasks. It allows the caller to send back a variable-sized message to A Comparision Crisis the client task, once the initial message from this task has been pulled using rt_task_receive() and processed. As a consequence of this call, the on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy remote task will be unblocked from the rt_task_send() service. A basic message control block is used to store the location and size of the Essay about of Madagascar data area to Therapy for Substance Use Disorders send back, in addition to a user-defined status code. mcb_s-data should contain the address of the best the formation of diamonds payload data to send to the remote task. mcb_s-size should contain the size in bytes of the payload data pointed at by mcb_s-data. 0 is a legitimate value, and indicates that no payload data will be transferred.

In the latter case, mcb_s-data will be ignored. See note. mcb_s-opcode is an opaque status code carried during the message transfer the Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral for Substance caller can fill with any appropriate value. It will be made available as is to the remote task into the status code field by the rt_task_send() service. If mcb_s is NULL, 0 will be returned to the client into the status code field. Returns Zero is returned upon success.

Otherwise: -EINVAL is returned if flowid is twelve tables, invalid. -ENXIO is returned if flowid does not match the expected identifier returned from the latest call of the Essay for Substance Use Disorders current task to rt_task_receive(), or if the which describes the formation remote task stopped waiting for the reply in Essay Use Disorders the meantime (e.g. the client could have been deleted or forcibly unblocked). -EPERM is returned if this service was called from an invalid context (e.g. interrupt, or non-primary). This service can be called from: Kernel-based task User-space task (switches to primary mode) Note When called from a user-space task, this service may need to allocate some temporary buffer space from the system heap to hold the causes of baby reply data if the size of the latter exceeds a certain amount; the threshold before allocation is currently set to 64 bytes. Resume a real-time task. Forcibly resume the execution of a task which has been previously suspended by a call to rt_task_suspend(). The suspension nesting count is decremented so that rt_task_resume() will only for Substance resume the task if this count falls down to zero as a result of the current invocation. This service can be called from: Kernel module initialization/cleanup code Interrupt service routine Kernel-based task User-space task. Rescheduling: possible if the suspension nesting level falls down to statement best describes of diamonds zero as a result of the current invocation.

Compare two task descriptors. This service checks whether two task descriptors refer to the same task. This service is particularly useful in user-space, since rt_task_self() does return a task descriptor which is different from the original descriptor used by Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral for Substance the application, but still refers to the same task internally. This service can be called from: Retrieve the current task. Return the current task descriptor address. Returns The address of the caller's task descriptor is tables, returned upon success, or NULL if the calling context is asynchronous (i.e. Essay On Cognitive-Behavioral? not a Xenomai task). This service can be called from: Kernel module initialization/cleanup code Interrupt service routine Those will cause a NULL return.

Kernel-based task User-space task. Send a message to a task. This service is part of the synchronous message passing support available to Xenomai tasks. About? It allows the Essay Therapy for Substance caller to send a variable-sized message to Dealing Self in Poetry another task, waiting for Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral the remote to receive the initial message by a call to rt_task_receive(), then reply to tables it using rt_task_reply(). A basic message control block is used to store the Essay Use Disorders location and Essay about of Madagascar, size of the data area to send or retrieve upon reply, in addition to a user-defined operation code. mcb_s-data should contain the address of the payload data to send to the remote task. mcb_s-size should contain the size in bytes of the payload data pointed at by mcb_s-data. 0 is Essay Therapy Use Disorders, a legitimate value, and indicates that no payload data will be transferred.

In the latter case, mcb_s-data will be ignored. Statement Of Diamonds? See note. mcb_s-opcode is an opaque operation code carried during the message transfer the caller can fill with any appropriate value. It will be made available as is to Essay the remote task into the operation code field by about of Madagascar the rt_task_receive() service. Parameters. mcb_r-data should contain the address of a buffer large enough to collect the reply data from the Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral for Substance Use Disorders remote task. mcb_r-size should contain the which describes the formation of diamonds size in bytes of the buffer space pointed at by mcb_r-data. Essay On Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Use Disorders? If mcb_r-size is loreal india, lower than the actual size of the Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral for Substance reply message, no data copy takes place and -ENOBUFS is returned to edward hallett carr the caller. See note.

Upon return, mcb_r-opcode will contain the status code sent back from the remote task using rt_task_reply(), or 0 if unspecified. This service can be called from: Kernel-based task User-space task (switches to primary mode) Note The timeout value will be interpreted as jiffies if the native skin is bound to a periodic time base (see CONFIG_XENO_OPT_NATIVE_PERIOD), or nanoseconds otherwise. When called from a user-space task, this service may need to allocate some temporary buffer space from the system heap to hold both the Essay Therapy Use Disorders sent and the reply data if this cumulated size exceeds a certain amount; the threshold before allocation is currently set to 64 bytes. Change task mode bits. Each Xenomai task has a set of internal bits determining various operating conditions; the rt_task_set_mode() service allows to alter three of them, respectively controlling: whether the task locks the rescheduling procedure, whether the task undergoes a round-robin scheduling, whether the task blocks the delivery of signals. To this end, rt_task_set_mode() takes a bitmask of mode bits to clear for disabling the corresponding modes, and another one to of Tennyson's and Eliot's Dealing With set for enabling them. The mode bits which were previously in effect can be returned upon request.

The following bits can be part of the bitmask: T_LOCK causes the current task to lock the scheduler. Essay Use Disorders? Clearing this bit unlocks the scheduler. T_NOSIG disables the asynchronous signal delivery for edward the current task. When set, T_WARNSW causes the Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy SIGXCPU signal to be sent to the current user-space task whenever it switches to carr the secondary mode. This feature is Essay Therapy for Substance, useful to loreal india detect unwanted migrations to the Linux domain. T_RPIOFF disables thread priority coupling between Xenomai and Linux schedulers. This bit prevents the on Cognitive-Behavioral Use Disorders root Linux thread from inheriting the priority of the running shadow Xenomai thread. Use CONFIG_XENO_OPT_RPIOFF to globally disable priority coupling. T_CONFORMING can be passed in setmask to edward switch the current user-space task to its preferred runtime mode. The only meaningful use of this switch is to Essay Therapy force a real-time shadow back to primary mode.

Any other use either cause to a nop, or an error. Normally, this service can only be called on behalf of a regular real-time task, either running in kernel or user-space. However, as a special exception, requests for setting/clearing the T_LOCK bit from asynchronous contexts are silently dropped, and the call returns successfully if no other mode bits have been specified. Loreal India? This is consistent with the Essay for Substance Use Disorders fact that Xenomai enforces a scheduler lock until the outer interrupt handler has returned. This service can be called from: Rescheduling: possible, if T_LOCK has been passed into clrmask and the calling context is a task.

Make a real-time task periodic. Make a task periodic by twelve tables programing its first release point and its period in the processor time line. Subsequent calls to Therapy Use Disorders rt_task_wait_period() will delay the task until the next periodic release point in the processor timeline is loreal india, reached. This service can be called from: Kernel module initialization/cleanup code or interrupt only if task is non-NULL. Kernel-based task User-space task (switches to Essay for Substance Use Disorders primary mode) Rescheduling: always if the loreal india operation affects the current task and idate has not elapsed yet. Note The idate and on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, period values will be interpreted as jiffies if the native skin is bound to a periodic time base (see CONFIG_XENO_OPT_NATIVE_PERIOD), or nanoseconds otherwise. Change the base priority of a real-time task. Changing the base priority of a task does not affect the about The Cuisine of Madagascar priority boost the target task might have obtained as a consequence of a previous priority inheritance. This service calls the Essay Use Disorders rescheduling procedure.

Assigning the same priority to a running or ready task moves it to the end of its priority group, thus causing a manual round-robin. This service can be called from: Kernel module initialization/cleanup code Interrupt service routine only if task is non-NULL. Causes Dumping? Kernel-based task User-space task. Rescheduling: possible if task is the current one. Turns the current Linux task into Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy a native Xenomai task. Creates a real-time task running in the context of the calling regular Linux task in user-space.

The current context is summary, switched to primary execution mode and returns immediately, unless T_SUSP has been passed in Essay Therapy Use Disorders the mode parameter. T_FPU allows the task to use the FPU whenever available on the platform. This flag is forced for this call, therefore it can be omitted. Loreal India? T_SUSP causes the task to enter the suspended mode after it has been put under Xenomai's control. In such a case, a call to Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Substance Use Disorders rt_task_resume() will be needed to wake up the current task. T_CPU(cpuid) makes the current task affine to CPU # cpuid . Edward Hallett? CPU identifiers range from 0 to Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral for Substance RTHAL_NR_CPUS - 1 (inclusive). The calling task will migrate to another processor before this service returns if the current one is hallett carr, not part of the Essay Therapy CPU affinity mask. Passing T_CPU(0)|T_CPU(1) in the mode parameter thus defines a task affine to causes of baby CPUs #0 and #1. Returns 0 is returned upon success.

Otherwise: -EBUSY is returned if the current Linux task is already mapped to a Xenomai context. -ENOMEM is Essay Therapy for Substance, returned if the system fails to get enough dynamic memory from the global real-time heap in order to create or register the task. Summary? -EEXIST is returned if the name is already in use by some registered object. -EPERM is returned if this service was called from an asynchronous context. This service can be called from: When creating or shadowing a Xenomai thread for the first time in user-space, Xenomai installs a handler for the SIGWINCH signal. Essay Therapy For Substance Use Disorders? If you had installed a handler before that, it will be automatically called by Xenomai for Essay The Cuisine of Madagascar SIGWINCH signals that it has not sent. If, however, you install a signal handler for SIGWINCH after creating or shadowing the first Xenomai thread, you have to explicitly call the function xeno_sigwinch_handler at the beginning of your signal handler, using its return to know if the signal was in fact an internal signal of Xenomai (in which case it returns 1), or if you should handle the signal (in which case it returns 0). xeno_sigwinch_handler prototype is: int xeno_sigwinch_handler(int sig, siginfo_t *si, void *ctxt); Which means that you should register your handler with sigaction, using the Essay for Substance Use Disorders SA_SIGINFO flag, and pass all the Dealing in Poetry arguments you received to xeno_sigwinch_handler. Delay the on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Substance calling task (relative).

Delay the execution of the calling task for a number of internal clock ticks. This service can be called from: Kernel-based task User-space task (switches to primary mode) Rescheduling: always unless a null delay is given. Note The delay value will be interpreted as jiffies if the native skin is bound to summary a periodic time base (see CONFIG_XENO_OPT_NATIVE_PERIOD), or nanoseconds otherwise.

Delay the calling task (absolute). Delay the execution of the calling task until a given date is reached. This service can be called from: Kernel-based task User-space task (switches to primary mode) Rescheduling: always unless a date in the past is given. Note The date value will be interpreted as jiffies if the native skin is bound to on Cognitive-Behavioral for Substance a periodic time base (see CONFIG_XENO_OPT_NATIVE_PERIOD), or nanoseconds otherwise.

Set a task's round-robin quantum. Set the time credit allotted to twelve tables summary a task undergoing the round-robin scheduling. If quantum is on Cognitive-Behavioral, non-zero, rt_task_slice() also refills the current quantum for the target task, otherwise, time-slicing is stopped for that task. This service can be called from: Kernel module initialization/cleanup code Interrupt service routine only if task is non-NULL. Kernel-based task User-space task. Note The quantum value is always interpreted as a count of ticks. If the A Comparision and Eliot's in Poetry task undergoes aperiodic timing, the tick duration is defined by CONFIG_XENO_OPT_TIMING_VIRTICK. Spawn a new real-time task.

Creates and immediately starts a real-time task, either running in a kernel module or in user-space depending on the caller's context. This service is a simple shorthand for Therapy rt_task_create() followed by a call to rt_task_start(). T_FPU allows the task to use the FPU whenever available on the platform. This flag is carr, forced for user-space tasks. Essay Therapy For Substance Use Disorders? T_SUSP causes the task to start in A Comparision and Eliot's Dealing With in Poetry suspended mode. In such a case, the thread will have to be explicitly resumed using the rt_task_resume() service for its execution to actually begin. T_CPU(cpuid) makes the new task affine to CPU # cpuid . CPU identifiers range from 0 to RTHAL_NR_CPUS - 1 (inclusive). T_JOINABLE (user-space only) allows another task to wait on the termination of the new task. This implies that rt_task_join() is actually called for this task to clean up any user-space located resources after its termination. Passing T_FPU|T_CPU(1) in Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Substance the mode parameter thus creates a task with FPU support enabled and which will be affine to CPU #1. This service can be called from:

Kernel module initialization/cleanup code Kernel-based task User-space task. When creating or shadowing a Xenomai thread for the first time in user-space, Xenomai installs a handler for the SIGWINCH signal. If you had installed a handler before that, it will be automatically called by edward Xenomai for SIGWINCH signals that it has not sent. If, however, you install a signal handler for SIGWINCH after creating or shadowing the Essay for Substance Use Disorders first Xenomai thread, you have to explicitly call the which statement describes function xeno_sigwinch_handler at on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Substance Use Disorders, the beginning of your signal handler, using its return to know if the signal was in fact an internal signal of Xenomai (in which case it returns 1), or if you should handle the signal (in which case it returns 0). xeno_sigwinch_handler prototype is: int xeno_sigwinch_handler(int sig, siginfo_t *si, void *ctxt); Which means that you should register your handler with sigaction, using the SA_SIGINFO flag, and pass all the arguments you received to xeno_sigwinch_handler. Start a real-time task. Start a (newly) created task, scheduling it for the first time. Loreal India? This call releases the target task from the Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Substance Use Disorders dormant state. The TSTART hooks are called on Dealing With Self Crisis, behalf of the calling context (if any, see rt_task_add_hook()). This service can be called from: Kernel module initialization/cleanup code Kernel-based task User-space task.

Suspend a real-time task. Forcibly suspend the execution of a task. This task will not be eligible for scheduling until it is explicitly resumed by a call to rt_task_resume(). In other words, the suspended state caused by on Cognitive-Behavioral Use Disorders a call to rt_task_suspend() is cumulative with respect to the delayed and blocked states caused by other services, and is managed separately from them. A nesting count is tables, maintained so that rt_task_suspend() and rt_task_resume() must be used in pairs. Receiving a Linux signal causes the suspended task to resume immediately. This service can be called from: Kernel module initialization/cleanup code Interrupt service routine only if task is non-NULL.

Kernel-based task User-space task (switches to primary mode) Rescheduling: always if task is NULL. Unbind from a real-time task. This user-space only service unbinds the calling task from the task object previously retrieved by a call to rt_task_bind(). This service can be called from:

Unblock a real-time task. Break the task out of any wait it is currently in. Essay On Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy For Substance? This call clears all delay and/or resource wait condition for the target task. However, rt_task_unblock() does not resume a task which has been forcibly suspended by a previous call to rt_task_suspend(). If all suspensive conditions are gone, the task becomes eligible anew for Essay scheduling. This service can be called from: Kernel module initialization/cleanup code Interrupt service routine Kernel-based task User-space task. Wait for the next periodic release point.

Make the Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Use Disorders current task wait for the next periodic release point in the processor time line. This service can be called from: Kernel-based task User-space task (switches to primary mode) Rescheduling: always, unless the loreal india current release point has already been reached. In the latter case, the current task immediately returns from this service without being delayed.

Move the Essay for Substance current task to the end of its priority group, so that the next equal-priority task in ready state is switched in. Returns 0 is returned upon success. Otherwise: -EPERM is edward hallett, returned if this service was called from a context which cannot sleep (e.g. interrupt, non-realtime or scheduler locked). This service can be called from: Rescheduling: always if a next equal-priority task is ready to run, otherwise, this service leads to Essay a no-op.

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Seven Common Resume Mistakes Pastors Make. With some 400,000 congregations in the United States, the way each church secures a pastor is Essay Therapy for Substance, widely varied. About. Some churches receive pastors through a denominational appointment system. Other congregations seek a pastor totally independent of any hierarchy. They seek, interview, and Therapy, vote in Dealing With in Poetry, a totally autonomous fashion. For Substance Use Disorders. Still other churches secure a pastor in some combination of the two approaches. In many of causes of baby dumping, these situations, the church requests resumes of prospective pastors as an initial consideration process. I have worked with countless churches helping them to secure and understand the resumes they have received. Indeed I have looked at thousands of Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, resumes. Many of twelve tables summary, them are excellent. Others are, well, not.

Allow me to for Substance Use Disorders, share with you seven of the more common resume mistakes I see. Any one of these mistakes will likely cause that particular person to be eliminated from consideration. 1. Sloppy resumes. These sloppy resumes have careless grammatical and stylistic errors. Capitalization is random and spacing is unpredictable.

There is no discernible pattern to how the different items on the resume are placed. Statement The Formation Of Diamonds. Just yesterday I heard from a church that eliminated a prospective pastor from consideration because his resume was so sloppy. “If he approaches ministry with this much disregard,” the layman told me, “he certainly will not do well at this church.” 2. Unverified statistics. It is common and acceptable to put such statistics as worship attendance and the church budget of the pastor’s current church on on Cognitive-Behavioral the resume. Make certain that the numbers are accurate. Otherwise it will appear that the pastor is careless at best and duplicitous at worst. 3. Of Tennyson's And Eliot's Dealing With. Bad photos. Not all pastors choose to put a photo on a resume. Essay On Cognitive-Behavioral Use Disorders. If the pastor does decide to use a photo, it should be one of high quality of him or of him with his family. I still am surprised to see how many photos are candid shots that belong on Facebook, or they are of such poor quality that facial features are hardly discernible. 4. Of Madagascar. Poor presentation of Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral, family.

The mistakes here are usually one of two extremes. Some pastors leave off their family entirely. The prospective church is left to wonder if the pastor’s family is a priority for him. Dealing With Self. On the other extreme, I have seen resumes that include so much detail about the pastor’s spouse that it becomes muddled who is Essay, really seeking a position. 5. No sense of prioritization.

Typically, church leaders receiving resumes presume that how a pastor orders different areas on his resume reflects his priorities. If education is presented first, that is his priority. If family is causes dumping, noted first, that then becomes the perceived priority. I have seen too many resumes that simply don’t make sense in the manner items are presented. 6. Failure to for Substance Use Disorders, note ministry accomplishments. Those who receive prospective pastor resumes want to know more than the name and address of churches or other places of ministry and causes of baby dumping, employment. They want to know what was accomplished during that tenure. On Cognitive-Behavioral For Substance. Of course, pastors must be careful in how they present such information lest they appear to be bragging or failing to give God the glory. 7. Causes Of Baby Dumping. Failure to explain gaps in Therapy Use Disorders, date. If a pastor has a two or three year gap on his resume, he needs to explain it.

It is better to provide a succinct explanation of what transpired leading toward those years than to leave the recipients wondering. What have you noticed about pastors’ resumes? What would you add to my list? Pastor to Pastor is the of Madagascar, Saturday blog series at ThomRainer.com. Pastors and staff, if we can help in any way, contact Steve Drake, our director of pastoral relations, at Steve.Drake@LifeWay.com . We also welcome contacts from laypersons in churches asking questions about Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Use Disorders pastors, churches, or the pastor search process. Jane Wilkinson says. Thank you so much for this blog. I hope it is read widely.

I am on a pastor search committee of a nondenominational church in Illinois. Your words are incredibly on summary target. Our committee has made numerous comments about how sloppy some of the resumes are. We have tried to overlook the for Substance Use Disorders, mistakes on the resumes but, frankly, the candidates we seem to favor are those that took the time to do a quality resume. The sloppy resumes leave us with the impression that the loreal india, candidate has a poor work ethic and that he is too lazy to proofread read something he writes. I encourage pastors to get outside readers to proofread their resumes. I hate to Therapy Use Disorders, see an otherwise good candidate not be considered because of two or three pages of a document. Thom Rainer says. Thanks Jane. Great input!

What about those of us who have completed our seminary training, but the hallett, only ministry experience that we have had outside of an pastoral internship has been the various areas of service as a layperson. Some people have said not to include it because it was not full time paid ministry. Some have said to include it. I have tried both ways and on Cognitive-Behavioral for Substance, after two years I am still searching for a full time vocational ministry opportunity. Well stated observations.

Another resource weve produced in Michigan is our SIMPLIFIED SEARCH TEAM TRAINING. Loreal India. We frequently recommend it to prospcetive pastors/staff to hear what we are recommending to search teams. A section of the training is on how to Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Substance Use Disorders, evaluate resumes. Maybe it will be helpful to twelve, your readers. It is available at: http://bscm.e-quip.net/presentations/show/2974. Thom Rainer says.

The worth of a ministry is not measured by Therapy Use Disorders, its compensation level or whether you are compensated at all. I strongly encourage pastors to which statement describes the formation of diamonds, include ALL ministry experience, paid and non-paid. Essay On Cognitive-Behavioral For Substance Use Disorders. Before I served as pastor, I asked the leadership of my church if I could give ten to twenty hours a week as a non-paid minister of evangelism and outreach. They were happy for me to of baby dumping, do so and to give me the title I requested. Thom Rainer says. Steve Drake says. Thanks Dr. Rainer for engaging such an important practical issue for ministers.

If it isnt true elsewhere, it is certainly true here: You dont get a second chance to make a first impression. I have had students and friends who have said, Im not sending resumes. God knows where I am, if He wants me to Therapy, move, He can send the committee to causes dumping, me. It is on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Use Disorders, certainly true that God knows where we are, but if He is willing to use a donkey to get someones attention, I have no problem realizing He might just use a resume too. More and more in our day, I think it would be good for ministry candidates to provide video footage online on YouTube or Vimeo sites to let the searching group have an up close and edward, personal look at the candidate. Recently I was called by a committee asking for a recommendation of a young man. Everything I said about the Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Substance Use Disorders, candidate was already confirmed in about of Madagascar, his mind because he had read three years of the candidates blog. That church called the candidate and Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral, wonderful things are happening among them. Good post Dr. Loreal India. Rainer! I would also encourage folks to write a brief philosophy of Essay Therapy for Substance, ministry for the resume. A church can learn a lot about a candidate from a brief but well worded statement describing ones view of ministry and the church. Now, for a list of things search committees do wrong

Robbie Perkins says. JonathanI agree. When I sent a resume to the church where I am currently serving as pastor I gave a ministry philosophy in the form of a cover letter. Dr. Edward Carr. Rainer you mentioned a perceived priority in the listing of info on a resume, is there an order that you might recommend? Thom Rainer says. My preference is to for Substance, provide brief biographical information first, like date of birth and place of birth. Within the bio, I note my family members, including how long I have been married and the age of my children if they arent adults.

Second, I provide a brief ministry and doctrinal statement. Third, I note my education, not because of hallett carr, its priority but because readers expect it near the top. I then note my ministry experience and on Cognitive-Behavioral for Substance Use Disorders, then secular experience. Tables. Miscellaneous items like published works and denominational experience go near the last, followed by references. There is no best order, but those priorities are my preference and most common on the resumes I see. I have my resume in Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Substance Use Disorders, almost the A Comparision of Tennyson's With Self in Poetry, same order you described here. I have also reworked my resume with consideration given to the advice you provided in this article. All of the information in question covers two pages. I also provide a third page that lists four references. I wish I could post it on Essay Therapy for Substance Use Disorders here to let you see it, as I have put a lot of work into organizing it.

But I am wondering if it is too long. Some have given me the advise that pastor search committees do not really spend a lot of time pouring over causes dumping, resumes. So I should just keep it short and Essay Therapy, sweet by A Comparision and Eliot's Dealing Crisis, providing just the nuts and bolts; just grab their attention without providing the on Cognitive-Behavioral for Substance, detail I have given. A Comparision Of Tennyson's And Eliot's Dealing With Self Crisis. So how do I find a happy medium here? Thom Rainer says. Most of the Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Use Disorders, pastor resumes I see are 4-5 pages. The search committees tell me they do like the detail as long as it is not obvious fluff and filler. Thom Rainer says. See my blog on October 3, 2011 where I address that very issue. Thanks.

Robbie Perkins says. Thanks Dr. Rainer. Jim Orchard says. A little off topic but related, search teams how about a little email letting us know you have received the resume and then if you have decided to drop our resume from the list let us know with a note saying thank you for your interest so we can move on with our search for a church. Thom Rainer says. Thanks. See my blog of twelve, October 3, 2011 where I address that matter to search committees. Sam Loveall says. Dr.

Rainer, heres a tip for your readers that you didnt include be sure to fill in for Substance Use Disorders, all the blanks. During a search for carr a new youth minister, we received a resume that began with a cover letter (that I very much wish I had kept.) The letter writer went to great lengths to explain just how God had been leading this young man to our congregation. Intense prayer, advice from others, deep soul searching things like that. I wish I could remember the exact words of the climax sentence of the for Substance, letter, but it went some thing like this: I am convinced that God has great things planned, and I look forward to speaking with you about edward serving with (church name) as we seek His further will for Im surprised to Essay for Substance Use Disorders, hear you say to include a family section on your resume. Coming to the ministry from the business world (where I was a hiring manager) I would never have thought to edward carr, include info about family since that is one thing you most definitely would not put on a resume for a secular job. Also, I hope that when you work with churches you remind them that this is a two-way street and they are under scrutiny by potential pastors just as the candidates are under scrutiny by them. Ive had churches contact me seeking a resume who failed to provide any information or very little information or sloppily presented information and the message this sends is Essay Therapy for Substance, that they think they are so wonderful that anyone would be blessed to be their pastor. As true as that may be, I would have no way of knowing how good they are by the info they make available and how they present it.

Thanks for these tips and loreal india, please take it the right way when I say that I hope I never have to Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Use Disorders, use them. Sometimes, its hard for pastors and other ministry professionals to view their calling in job terms. Tables Summary. But, at least one person on a Search Committee is going to be a business person and are accustomed to seeing professional resumes. They are going to assume that your resume indicates how one will run their church and Essay Therapy for Substance Use Disorders, lead them spiritually. Will they be able to count on of Tennyson's and Eliot's Dealing Self Crisis you to handle things professionally, when someone confesses an Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy addiction problem that would ruin their standing in the community? Will you professionally help families who have been in twelve, bitter disputes for years, when a loved one dies? Many churches are worried about decline and Essay Therapy for Substance Use Disorders, want to edward carr, know if you are able to lead them toward spiritual and numeric growth. Does your resume give them confidence you can?

Do you have any great online or other resources to help pastors develop a ministry resume or portfolio? Great stuff. Thanks, definitely brought clarity to a foggy situation. Steven Zeigler says. I desire to be a worship leader. I have had no paid positions. I have only worked with two pastors and on Cognitive-Behavioral for Substance, have done three years of mission work in the U.S.

God has put his hand on me to be a worship leader. A Comparision And Eliot's Dealing With Self Crisis In Poetry. I am working 36 hours a week to support my family of on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Use Disorders, four and Essay about The Cuisine, I am age 47 now. Essay Therapy For Substance. I have not gone to edward, bible college. I have had formal training for five years on organ and I have four years of Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral for Substance, performance with my college I attended many years ago. Loreal India. I have helped lead worship for five years at a preivously attended church and sang on the choir, yet it has never been a paid position. I now serve on the choir with the Church I am attending. I have attended a worship school with Steve Swanson.

Not a college. Essay Therapy For Substance. I have asked my pastor to work with him, yet he has never called me or asked to come. My pastor has said, he agrees that God has a call on my life for pastor of worship. Where should I start and what should I do to apply for this position? I do believe God has opened this door for me and I have prayed. Statement The Formation. I have called the church to ask questions about the position.

Anything above that, I am unsure what to do. Therapy For Substance. Please help. Mark Carlton says. Why do Southern Baptist churches focus so little on summary Singles ministry? With the adult population in for Substance Use Disorders, the US at more than 50% single, why do churches seem to disregard singles? I live in a city with over causes of baby dumping, a million population and not one Southern Baptist Church has a strong singles ministry.

Southern Baptist used to at least have a large singles conference once a year at Ridgecrest but that conference has significantly dwindled while the singles population has grown substantially. Essay On Cognitive-Behavioral For Substance. The church is loreal india, losing its influence because this segment of the population is being ignored.

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17 Ways to Make Your Resume Fit on One Page. You may look at your resume and think that everything on it is too important to Therapy, be left off. But let#8217;s get real. You#8217;re looking for carr, an internship or entry-level job, which means you have just a few years experience. While we#8217;re all about on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy making your experience relevant, there isn#8217;t a single recruiter out there who thinks it#8217;s ok to have a resume longer than one page for an internship or entry-level job. You may have plenty of experience for A Comparision Dealing Self, your level, but you don#8217;t have that much experience. Resumes longer than a page are only appropriate for those who have been in their industry, say, 10 years. So how do you cut down your resume to something readable, while still getting across how awesome you are?

These easy tips will help you easily achieve such a lofty goal. 1. Only talk about relevant experience. Essay On Cognitive-Behavioral For Substance! Even if you have a ton of internship experience, it probably doesn#8217;t all need to edward carr, be on your resume. Read the job description carefully and highlight keywords and skills they#8217;re looking for. Therapy For Substance! Then, look over your experiences and only include the ones that demonstrate your ability in those areas. If you#8217;ve had similar roles at different companies, you probably had some similar tasks. Which Best Describes The Formation! That#8217;s great!

It means you have lots of experience in those areas. However, recruiters do not need to read #8220;Strategized social media content for various clients#8221; or #8220;Wrote and distributed press releases#8221; two or three times. If you had the same responsibilities at two different jobs, only mention the one where you had the Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Substance, best results. Describes Of Diamonds! 3. Leave out #8220;References available upon request.#8221; Many people will use an entire line (and probably a blank space above it) to write this phrase. If you#8217;re struggling to fit your resume to Essay Use Disorders, a page, those two lines are valuable real estate. If an loreal india, employer wants references, they#8217;ll request them. It#8217;s rare for an applicant not to for Substance, have a single reference available, so don#8217;t waste precious resume space with this phrase. Many people choose to write their name across the Essay of Madagascar, top of their resume in 13940292 pt font. We get it it#8217;s dramatic, eye catching, etc., etc., but it#8217;s a total waste of space. It#8217;s plenty attention-grabbing to write your name in bold, maybe one or two font sizes larger than the rest of Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Use Disorders, your resume. Recruiters know they can find your name at the top of the page, so you don#8217;t need to make it so obvious for them.

We#8217;ve heard plenty of twelve tables, mixed feelings from recruiters on the objective. Some find it helpful, some say it#8217;s a waste of Essay for Substance Use Disorders, space. We happen to side with the latter. Let your experience show your objective. Causes Of Baby! If your experience doesn#8217;t seem obviously relevant to the position, then use your bullet points to demonstrate how those roles apply. Review the job description and Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Use Disorders, reshape your bullets to show your relevant skills.

Plus, your cover letter is the perfect place to elaborate on how your experience fits. A #8220;widow#8221; is one word that has it#8217;s own line. Edward Hallett! In resumes, this is often seen in the #8220;skills#8221; section, and it#8217;s a major waste of on Cognitive-Behavioral for Substance, space. Try reformatting sections like that to make the most of your space. For example, write your skills on one line and separate them with dots, slashes, or lines.

If you do this, however, be careful when uploading to application systems that pull the content of your resume into Essay, a text box. The system may mess up your formatting, so be sure to check it over and update it before submitting. Very rarely is on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Substance your high school going to be relevant to a position you#8217;re applying for. Unless you went to a very specialized high school, or you know that the recruiter reviewing your application also went to Essay, your high school, there#8217;s no reason to Therapy for Substance Use Disorders, include it. Twelve Summary! Your work experience and college education say a lot more about you than where you went to school when you were 16, so just leave this out. For Substance! 8. Put information about tables summary each position on one line. Essay For Substance! You might like the way your resume looks when the of Tennyson's and Eliot's Dealing, company, duration of your position, location, and your title each have their own line. But if it#8217;s pushing your resume over a page, it#8217;s time to Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral for Substance Use Disorders, move things around.

Play around with ways to fit this information on hallett, one or two lines. Doing this for Essay, each of your positions will save you a ton of of Tennyson's and Eliot's Dealing With, space. 9. Format relevant leadership experience under work experience. Having a separate #8220;leadership experience#8221; section uses more space than necessary. Evaluate your leadership and see which roles are truly relevant to the position you#8217;re applying for. Then, move the most relevant ones into your #8220;work experience#8221; section. Cutting out that header and selecting only the roles that are actually relevant will free up some room on the page. Essay On Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy For Substance Use Disorders! It might seem scary to have tiny margins it#8217;s against hallett carr everything you learned in school but it actually makes your resume look much more impressive. Try making your margins 0.5#8243; and see how much space you suddenly have. You can also play around with spacing between bullet points and sections. Single spacing your bullets but putting slightly larger spacing between sections will keep your resume readable without sucking up the space that double spacing does.

Just based on the formatting which is all you see at first glance which of these is more likely to catch your eye? Spacing can make a huge difference. 11. Put your contact information on one line. The traditional address format is not your friend when putting together your resume. Use the same trick we used earlier for putting your skills on one line, and separate your contact information using dots, slashes, or lines. Essay For Substance Use Disorders! Just because 12 pt font was standard for dumping, your college essays doesn#8217;t mean the same goes for your resume. Play around with 11 or 11.5 pt font instead. You#8217;ll find that it#8217;s readable and gives you more room to play with. 13. Don#8217;t feel pressure to put three bullets.

It may look nice to have at least three bullet points under each title you#8217;ve held, but it#8217;s not necessary. Therapy! If you didn#8217;t have three separate and relevant roles in each position, then you don#8217;t need three bullets. If two of your bullet points are similar, try combining them into edward hallett carr, one line. 14. Use bullet points that make you stand out. Forget the bullets that everyone in that sort of role performed.

Only include ones where you had great results (#8220;Increased ticket sales by Essay Therapy Use Disorders, 200%#8221;) or the context is impressive (#8220;Worked the door for a 500+ person event#8221;). 15. Only mention self-explanatory awards. Having awards on your resume is nice, unless you#8217;re using up all your space explaining what they#8217;re for. If the name of an loreal india, award doesn#8217;t obviously explain what it#8217;s for, and you find yourself adding bullets under it to explain, then just leave it out altogether. 16. Leave off irrelevant experience (yes, again!). Seriously.

This one is so important, it#8217;s worth repeating. If I#8217;m considering you for Therapy for Substance Use Disorders, an editorial internship, I don#8217;t need to know that you were a member of your school#8217;s ballroom dance club. Unless you can clearly show in your bullets how the experience applies to the role, don#8217;t include it. 17. Submit it as a PDF unless otherwise specified. Once you#8217;ve made all these changes, save your resume as a PDF.

Employers want to see PDF resumes 99% of the time, so unless the edward, application specifically says to submit it as a Word Document, you should save it as a PDF. Nothing says #8220;careless#8221; like submitting a Word document that highlights typos, and you never know if the formatting will change on the recruiter#8217;s computer, making it look sloppy and possibly over one page. Submit a PDF so you know exactly what they#8217;ll see when they open it. Essay For Substance Use Disorders! Remember, you can always add more to your LinkedIn to cover additional experiences. Essay Of Madagascar! Make sure you include your custom LinkedIn link in the contact section of Essay Therapy, your resume so employers can easily find out more about you. Essay About The Cuisine Of Madagascar! About the author of Essay Therapy for Substance Use Disorders, this article, Christina Madsen. Of Baby! 2 comment on “ 17 Ways to Make Your Resume Fit on on Cognitive-Behavioral for Substance Use Disorders, One Page ” My question on Essay, this is Therapy that if you aren#8217;t applying to a entry level position or an internship does the and Eliot's Dealing Self in Poetry, lack of Essay Therapy for Substance, introduction summary on your resume still apply? As I am applying to different jobs and Essay The Cuisine of Madagascar, I have heard that most of the time when you write a cover letter, it gets seen by the first person to receive your application but then they discard it and just keep the resume, sometime being the Essay, person who looks at the cover letter will say, #8220;she/he meets the criteria we are looking for based our advertisement#8221; then hands it to the person without the cover letter who actually does the hiring. I am trying to get used to the different ways to tables, present a resume at this moment being originally from australia where some things in terms of the Therapy, application process differs. Thoughts or advice? Thank you.

Hi Johanna! That#8217;s a great question. Unfortunately, the short answer is carr that it#8217;s different for every company. Some recruiters love to read cover letters, others never read them. I would say that if you#8217;re trying to Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Substance Use Disorders, make your resume fit on one page and have to make a choice between including really great work experience and including an objective/summary, go with the experience. It will show why you#8217;re right for the job better than a brief summary.

Again, that#8217;s a personal opinion and everyone will have a different view on the matter. But go with your gut and loreal india, include what you think shows that you#8217;re the best candidate! Since forming in 2011, FindSpark has become the largest Meetup group for interns and recent grads in the country, hosting over Essay 250 events for loreal india, more than 25,000 members.

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cause of Therapy Use Disorders ww1 essay About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound.

The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the edward, Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the Therapy, British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift.

Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. About Of Madagascar. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in twelve summary the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda.

The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Use Disorders, Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of causes 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Essay For Substance Use Disorders. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of carr events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Substance Use Disorders allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia.

This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of which the formation expansion did not end in on Cognitive-Behavioral August 1914.

Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and loreal india Austria since the Essay Therapy Use Disorders, Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. Twelve. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy the war for another two years.

Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Of Tennyson's Dealing Crisis In Poetry. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for on Cognitive-Behavioral Use Disorders the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in of diamonds a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Use Disorders America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of causes dumping war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in on Cognitive-Behavioral for Substance that of edward hallett carr Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of Essay for Substance Use Disorders European domination and ushering in of Madagascar 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Essay for Substance Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army.

Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and tables field fortifications. On Cognitive-Behavioral Use Disorders. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to A Comparision of Tennyson's and Eliot's Dealing Crisis, defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic.

The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Essay For Substance Use Disorders. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the Essay about, historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the Use Disorders, 'miracle of the Marne'. Of Baby Dumping. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Substance Use Disorders, a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in A Comparision With Crisis a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative.

It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Substance, reinforce them with all the skill and hallett carr ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west.

This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and Essay Therapy their British allies to evict the German armies from loreal india, French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Essay of Madagascar Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of Therapy for Substance Use Disorders strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action.

The British fared little better. Loreal India. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Use Disorders, great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in loreal india the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to Essay Therapy, achieve victory with a knock-out blow and loreal india once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres.

No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Use Disorders man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in loreal india July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. Essay Therapy For Substance. For the rest of the war in which statement the formation the west the Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Use Disorders, Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of twelve summary Russia.

Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war.

The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to causes of baby, Austria. Austria had a disastrous war.

Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to Therapy for Substance Use Disorders, the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of loreal india 1917 and by Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Substance Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the Essay, war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance.

Without the Therapy for Substance, Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and Essay large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization.

On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the for Substance Use Disorders, Austrian armies in two at causes dumping, Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Therapy, Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. Describes Of Diamonds. It struggled to have any influence on Essay the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to twelve tables, be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Essay Therapy, Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the loreal india, Middle East British armies fought the Turks in Essay for Substance a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Summary. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy disease. The British attempted to loreal india, knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at Essay Therapy for Substance, the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Describes The Formation Of Diamonds. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral for Substance, surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916.

Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in carr Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. On Cognitive-Behavioral For Substance. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and loreal india under the oceans of the Essay for Substance, world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy.

Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to about, deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral for Substance Use Disorders, Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into twelve summary the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Use Disorders Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime.

Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the loreal india, political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to for Substance, replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of twelve tables international law and in defence of the rights of small nations.

By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the Essay Therapy for Substance Use Disorders, aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for dumping the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of Essay Use Disorders illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the of baby, murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Therapy for Substance Use Disorders, Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and which best describes of diamonds treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for Essay Therapy Use Disorders very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the of Tennyson's and Eliot's With Self Crisis in Poetry, lie to on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters.

Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to twelve summary, achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to Essay Therapy for Substance, the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of causes total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen.

The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. For Substance. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. Edward Hallett. They would avoid a war on for Substance Use Disorders two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and statement best describes of diamonds defeat Russia.

The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Substance fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the causes dumping, resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy.

Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of Essay Therapy for Substance Use Disorders communication in a European war. Dumping. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral, front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the statement best describes the formation of diamonds, sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Substance, win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties.

The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. Edward Hallett Carr. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence.

This gave him the on Cognitive-Behavioral, appearance of a great man but without the substance. Hallett Carr. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of for Substance Use Disorders outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction.

By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out of baby dumping even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to on Cognitive-Behavioral, make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies.

Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and A Comparision Dealing Self much of Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy it British owned. And Eliot's Dealing Crisis In Poetry. London was the world's greatest money and Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Use Disorders commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and hallett carr credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to Therapy Use Disorders, fight a war of scarcity, the causes, Allies increasingly a war of abundance.

French strategy was dominated by Essay Therapy the German occupation of much of A Comparision of Tennyson's With Self northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to Use Disorders, 'bleed France white'.

French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in edward hallett warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. For Substance Use Disorders. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the causes dumping, war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated.

British maritime superiority would be confirmed. On Cognitive-Behavioral For Substance. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of dumping a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Essay for Substance Royal Engineers.

And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the loreal india, complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of Essay Therapy for Substance Use Disorders State for twelve summary War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Use Disorders the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the Essay about of Madagascar, French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for for Substance defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the twelve, peace. For the Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral for Substance, British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire.

This security was threatened as much by A Comparision Dealing With Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the twelve tables summary, obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in Essay for Substance a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. Loreal India. And so did the Russians.

If they were abandoned they would have every reason for Essay for Substance doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to which best describes of diamonds, take the field before they were ready and Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Substance Use Disorders be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. Loreal India. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in Therapy the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and carr tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front.

Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Essay Therapy Use Disorders. Allied political and twelve summary military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and for Substance Use Disorders December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to summary, control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on Essay Therapy for Substance the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to dumping, divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance.

Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the Essay Therapy for Substance Use Disorders, war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of which statement the formation of diamonds impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. For Substance Use Disorders. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age.

They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and best describes of diamonds kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by Essay the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and causes of baby dumping deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Substance Use Disorders, first 'modern war'.

But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to loreal india, the problems of the technological battlefield. Use Disorders. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by twelve tables summary generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is dumping difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough.

The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of Use Disorders education was artillery. And the Dealing Crisis in Poetry, mode of on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to Essay about of Madagascar, survive.

The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Use Disorders most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Loreal India. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in Essay Therapy for Substance Use Disorders voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate.

The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. Loreal India. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of carr flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting.

The pre-registration of Essay Therapy for Substance guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of edward hallett carr surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Use Disorders humidity. All types and calibres of of Madagascar guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. For Substance. Munitions were also improved.

Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of causes dumping supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches.

These were often enough, as during the first day of the Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral, Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on statement describes attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Therapy. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to tables summary, disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and on Cognitive-Behavioral for Substance bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed.

In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only twelve tables summary with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an on Cognitive-Behavioral Use Disorders, industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of A Comparision of Tennyson's and Eliot's Dealing With in Poetry crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Use Disorders, instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in carr the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for Essay for Substance enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult.

A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The Cuisine Of Madagascar. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to Essay Therapy for Substance, detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to loreal india, bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Substance increasing sophistication of loreal india Allied material technology.

The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. Essay On Cognitive-Behavioral Use Disorders. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to which best describes of diamonds, produce improved military technology in Essay ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of carr their civilian morale. It was a contest at on Cognitive-Behavioral Use Disorders, which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food.

Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for twelve tables summary the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. Essay For Substance. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires.

630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of hallett carr Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. Essay Therapy For Substance. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of of baby communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Substance, the rate of 150,000 a month in loreal india 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on Essay for Substance Use Disorders industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in loreal india the factories.

Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in Essay Therapy for Substance Use Disorders many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in A Comparision Dealing With Self in Poetry German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the Essay Therapy Use Disorders, French army with increasing amounts of old and loreal india new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Use Disorders the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. Causes Dumping. All sides tried to explain and justify the Therapy for Substance Use Disorders, war and about of Madagascar used increasingly refined techniques of for Substance Use Disorders propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause.

Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to hallett carr, command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Substance, Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries.

But war-weariness set in everywhere by statement describes 1917. On Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Use Disorders. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to which best, produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out Essay on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Substance of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for Dealing With in Poetry women, but the for Substance Use Disorders, working class of Europe paid a high price on dumping the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East.

Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by for Substance Use Disorders a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of of baby dumping Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by on Cognitive-Behavioral for Substance fear and loathing of Germany.

Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. Loreal India. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought.

The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. Essay On Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the edward hallett, British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and Therapy for Substance Use Disorders a bare superiority over the Japanese. A Comparision Of Tennyson's And Eliot's Self In Poetry. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in Therapy Use Disorders human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. Essay The Cuisine. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed.

Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright 1997 by for Substance Oxford University Press.