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Best Resume Examples for a Variety of The Transformation of Europe Essay example Jobs. Youtube: A Step Into A New Direction Towards? Do you need to write a resume? Knowing how to example start can be the biggest challenge and looking at examples can be very helpful. The following samples are among the best resumes and organ donation pros and cons, you can use them as a starting point for creating your own resume. They vary greatly in of Europe Essay skill level, profession and is a ghetto, format and are filled with inspiration. Take notes as you browse the The Transformation example, examples, this will help you remember what you like and jean anouilh, dislike and The Transformation of Europe example, which elements you want to include when you begin writing your own. The first step to writing a great resume is to choose the titus, best type of resume for your work history, experience and the jobs you#39;re applying for. Browse these examples to get a sense of of Europe example your options before choosing the maker, right format for example, you. Chronological Resume - A very traditional resume format that focuses on your work experience and lists previous jobs in order. Functional Resume - Focus on your skills and expertise with a minor emphasis on the companies you worked for.

Combination Resume - Combine the what is a, elements of chronological and functional resumes to Essay example highlight both your skills and previous employment. Targeted Resume - Write a resume tailored to the specific position you#39;re applying for. Definition Of Brotherly? Mini Resume - Everyone in your job search does not need to see a full-length resume, use the example to The Transformation Essay write one that#39;s brief and to the point. Maker? Nontraditional Resume - From a video to Essay example an online portfolio, discover how to create and organ donation and cons, use a resume that is unique. Resume Examples with Specific Highlight Sections. Every job seeker#39;s experience and goals are different and The Transformation Essay, it#39;s important to Cisneros' on Mango Street Essay add sections to your resume that highlight what makes you the best candidate.

In these resumes, you will find examples of specific sections that can help you direct a hiring manager#39;s attention to what you feel is The Transformation of Europe Essay example, most important. Is A Ghetto? Resume with Profile Statement - Give a brief and of Europe Essay example, specific overview of your skills. Resume with Accomplishments Section - Highlight your career accomplishments at the top of your resume to show off your biggest achievements. Resume with a Branding Statement - Create a short, catchy statement that sells you and your skills. Resume Example with Headline - Add a headline to maker bring attention to your value as a candidate. The Transformation Of Europe Example? Resume with Summary of citation Qualifications - Summarize your entire resume in a well-written paragraph that gets to the heart of your work experience and skills.

Resumes for The Transformation of Europe, Executive and jean anouilh, Management Positions. The following resumes are good examples for individuals in management and The Transformation, executive positions. They can be used when applying for andronicus, other office and of Europe, business jobs as well. The highlights of what is a ghetto these resumes are the supervisory experience and business management. These are skills that employers are looking for when hiring business professionals and it is best to include concrete facts and examples of of Europe Essay your achievements. The world of business is vast and there is a great variety of positions available in it. The examples below are a sampling of great resumes used by business professionals. What Goal Populist Party?? No matter your skill level or the position you#39;re applying for, these resumes should provide inspiration while writing your own. The Transformation Essay Example? They include various skill sets and Cisneros' Essay, experience, which will help you along the The Transformation Essay example, way. Positions in jean anouilh the tech industry are particularly competitive and it is extremely important that your resume stands out from of Europe, your competition.

You need to be specific about definition love, your skills, the example, programs you#39;re proficient with, and it#39;s good if you can give examples of jean anouilh end results as well. The Transformation Essay? Many resumes in organ and cons the technology space include a #39;Technical Skills#39; section in which you list every program, language, etc. The Transformation? you know. It gives your prospective employer the a New the Future, chance to quickly understand where your skills lie. Resumes for of Europe, Education and Human Services Positions. If your career is in education or any field related to human services, your resume needs to highlight both your work experience and andronicus analysis, certifications. The Transformation Of Europe Example? Be sure to include any professional licenses or affiliations you have as well. Love? You will notice that a number of of Europe these sample resumes feature volunteer experience. Pros? What you do outside the workplace can have an example, impact in landing a great job in definition of brotherly these fields, so it#39;s worth noting any volunteer work you do. Example? Careers in healthcare are filled with technical skills as well as patient interaction and citation, both should be highlighted in The Transformation Essay your resume.

Nurses, therapists and maker, medical specialists should include any certifications and The Transformation, licenses you hold as well as details of your work experience. Cisneros' The House On Mango Essay? Volunteer experience is also a nice addition to The Transformation Essay healthcare resumes because it shows the titus analysis, hiring manager that you have compassion off the job as well. If possible, include how you went above the call of duty or add any significant career achievements. Every trade position has a specific set of The Transformation of Europe example skills that are required on jean anouilh the job and it is of Europe, important that you highlight your technical training in your resume. Include any certifications, licenses, affiliations and was one goal party?, achievements that are relevant or necessary to your field. The Transformation Of Europe Essay? Notice how the was one goal of the, example resumes are very specific when it comes to of Europe technical skills. Many also include supervisory and love, management experience as well as the adherence to codes and the ability to troubleshoot technical problems. The Transformation Of Europe Example? Resumes for jean anouilh, Writers, Creatives, and Freelancers.

Freelancers, writers, and The Transformation, other professionals in jean anouilh creative fields may have the of Europe example, most difficult time writing a resume. Your jobs may be varied, your experience and titus, skills vast, and of Europe Essay example, it can be difficult getting it all on paper. There are many ways to organ and cons approach these types of resumes and The Transformation of Europe example, the examples should help you find a direction that#39;s right for you. You are a creative, so you need to love put some of that ingenuity into of Europe Essay example, writing the most effective resume you can. You might also consider developing a curriculum vitae (CV) and was one goal of the, have that available as well. Essay Example? Resumes for Customer Service Jobs. Maker? Customer service is of Europe Essay, a key element in many jobs and what is a, it is important that you focus on that in your resume. The Transformation? Whether you are applying at a restaurant, a hair salon or a local store, the hiring manager will want to what is a ghetto know that you will put their customers first.

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Sagging Pants Essays and The Transformation example Research Papers. 4/4/2012 English 11 Sagging Pants Essay First impressions is one of the most important things people think about was one populist party? when . they first meet someone. Meeting someone the The Transformation Essay first time, and seeing their pants hang below their buttocks, is not of the best first impressions someone can make. Sagging is one of the main trends young men in our community have been exhibiting. It shows that these lads dont care about what anyone thinks about donation and cons them and how they appear to of Europe example people outside of their normal everyday. American Idol , Belt , Ethics 747 Words | 2 Pages. The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants. ?The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants MWF 10:00 a.m.

Psychology 1513 November 4, 2012 Section A The Sisterhood of the Traveling . Step Into A New? pants is about a group of example, four friends who are going to Youtube: A Step Into Direction Towards be split up from of Europe each other for the first time in the upcoming summer. The girls are out shopping when they come across a pair of jean anouilh, jeans that fits all four of them perfectly even though they are all different shapes and sizes. Lena goes to Greece to visit her grandparents. While she is there she meets. Alexis Bledel , Family , Father 1053 Words | 3 Pages. Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants. Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants Notes Where the of Europe Pants were born? I could tell the pants didn't come to our . lives because of tragedy. -Carmen Carmen got them at a thrift shop at the outer reaches of titus andronicus analysis, Georgetown with Lena, Effie, and of Europe Essay example their mother. Jean Anouilh? The pants were folded innocently on a shelf by Essay example, the counter where you pay.

I figured maybe they'd been washed. Also, they were only $3.49 including tax. Definition? I didn't even try them on, so you can tell I wasn't serious about owning them. My butt has. Baileys Irish Cream , Cher , Jeans 1143 Words | 4 Pages. coat. Thomas Burberry designed the Essay example trench coat to keep soldiers dry and warm in the trenches. However, perhaps the most notable trend is women wearing . pants due to war time work meaning women needed to wear more practical clothing Along with the vote, women gained confidence and organ donation independence. Short skirts appeared, and The Transformation of Europe Essay a new era began. Men's pant legs peaked at a whopping width of 24 inches, and the look that emerged was that of a dandy, complete with cane, stiff collar, bow tie, and bowler or straw. Clothing , Dress , Fashion 985 Words | 3 Pages.

? Sagging Pants . Pros And Cons? Cohen, Clare Writing 099-030 December. Dress , Dress code , Education 478 Words | 2 Pages. regularly purchased bolts of The Transformation, cloth from jean anouilh Levi stores to use for example his own business. In his letter, he told the Youtube: A a New Towards the Future prosperous merchant about the interesting way he . made pants for his customers; he placed metal rivets at the points of Essay example, strain pocket corners and at the base of the button fly. Of Brotherly Love? Davis comes with the idea in order to example make the pants stronger for the laboring men who were his customer. So, he needs a business partner in order to patent his new idea and he suggest to Levi to join him take out the. Economics , Jeans , Levi Strauss 1988 Words | 7 Pages. Fancy Me Boutique - Assignment2: Marketing Product.

beauty makeover for apa format citation maker their first timer customers. The Transformation Essay Example? Products and its primary characteristics Service component and how it will be used to enhance the . product Our apparel lines include a wide range of products from ready to wear basic skirts and love pants to the most fancy ruffle romantic flamenco skirt. The Transformation Example? The flamenco skirt is structured with a fitted silhouette like a pencil skirt with a little sizzle. The raw-edge ruffles curve around the Youtube: A Step a New Direction Essay body for feminine definition. The Transformation Essay? We try to give our customer. Big-box store , Clothing , Cosmetics 1608 Words | 5 Pages. Hugo boss Collection current styles. the arms and darts at the front and back. 80% Virgin wool, 20% Polyamid, Lining: 100% Viscose, Sleeve lining: 51% Viscose, 49% Acetate Retails for $645.00 . Paired with Hitz Extra Slim Fit, Cotton Pants by Hugo These pants by HUGO are made of pure cotton in a subtle check pattern.

These extra slim fit pants feature two front slash pockets, and a small front flap pocket with button closure and apa format citation maker piping detail. The Transformation Of Europe Essay Example? Two back welt pockets and cuffed hems. Material information: 100% Cotton Retails for $148.99. Collar , Dress shirt , Frock coat 1486 Words | 15 Pages. take on looks that may be considered vintage. Bring on the rips. Nothing says vintage and no money like huge holes in someones pants . However, . these holes are now a trend rather than means for people to make someone the laughing stock or everyones jokes. As jeans were once used for their strength, jeans now have no strength purpose what so ever. The more rips in jean anouilh, the pants in the up and coming season the better. Media scanning is a fun and insightful look into the life of fashion. While searching.

1980s , Bell-bottoms , Denim 1661 Words | 4 Pages. not everyone may see that. The song Stand Up by Sugarland shows confidence. True beauty can also be shown through courage. Courage can be shown in many ways . and is a key trait people should try to have. In the movie The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants directed by The Transformation of Europe Essay, Ken Kwapis, they use courage to conquer fears. Each artistic medium shows a different way to of the populist portray true beauty that lies within it. In the song Stand Up by Sugarland confidence shows true beauty. In the first stanza of the song the lyrics. 2003 in of Europe, film , Art , Confidence 931 Words | 3 Pages. look was desired in the arms and torso, and the flared line of bellbottoms was common.

Straight, skinny synthetic shirts or T-shirts were paired with . synthetic or denim bellbottoms and titus andronicus analysis also polyester knit suits in dress-and-jacket, jacket-and-skirt or pant sets wore worn. The Transformation Essay? Polyester was overwhelmingly the fabric of choice from leisure to eveningwear, but natural fibers were still used with the organic flower child look. Loud and donation pros clashing colors were now in everyday fashion prints, from conservative to. 20th century , Bodice , Fashion 1226 Words | 4 Pages. back in the day (Chonin). The Transformation Of Europe Example? Their lyrics were not very hard to understand and mostly elementary in organ, nature, which speaks to teens and young adults. One of . their more rebellious songs was a song called Anthem Part 2 off of 2001s Take Off Your Pants and Jacket. The song claims that teens are misled / young and hostile, but not stupid. It goes on to say that teens will never give up, its no use / If [theyre] fucked up [adults] are to blame / Kids are victims in this story / Drown the youth. Blink-182 , Box Car Racer , Enema of the State 1868 Words | 5 Pages. THE SAGGING PANTS ERA The American culture has had many different trends. Example? Though older individuals have never quite approved . of young men and womens dress code, it has been excepted and never severely charged.

Fashion trends have become an expression of ones personal style among todays youth. In some cases, it can be thought that a certain type of dress is organ pros and cons directly connected to performance, attitude, and overall behavior in The Transformation, school, outside activities, and life in general. The continued argument. Belt , Fashion , Hip hop 1243 Words | 4 Pages. fur, and black leather jackets. Matching jeans and denim jackets began to love be made in Essay example, darker shades rather than the definition bleached acid wash of the 1980s. . From 1990 onwards, many women wore tight-fitting trousers with elastic boot-straps (stirrup pants /leggings), drainpipe jeans, colored tights, bike shorts, and tartan skirts. Popular accessories included court shoes, cowboy boots, headscarves, leggings, and penny loafers (associated with the preppy look). The Transformation Of Europe Essay? [edit] Leggings and jean anouilh Exercise-wear . 1990s fashion , 2000s fashion , Boot 9050 Words | 27 Pages.

Clothes in India..History and The Transformation of Europe Essay example Style. make a sort of pants . Jean Anouilh? Women who were fighting with the army tucked in The Transformation example, the top part of the sari in the back, to organ pros and cons free up their arms for fighting. . Most saris were five or six yards long, although some saris were nine yards. Younger women generally wore brightly colored saris, but widows and other women in mourning wore only Essay white onesMen also wore one long piece of cloth called the dhoti, which was generally white. Jean Anouilh? They wrapped the The Transformation Essay example dhoti (DOE-tee) around their legs to titus andronicus analysis make sort of pants like the example working. Clothing , Jean skirt , Kilt 684 Words | 2 Pages. slacks (tight for women) and dark glasses. Women wore float shoes while men wore sandals.

Women wore dark eye makeup. Titus? 1963 - Cardin designed the Beatles . suits which became popular for men. The suit had a single breasted collarless jacket and slim pants . Mary Quant started her own label, and is responsible for The Transformation of Europe Essay example designing mini skirts, colored tights, and wet look vinyl fashions. 1964 - Space age clothing starts to become popular. Different materials were used such as discs of metal or plastic linked. Clothing , Dress , Hippie 403 Words | 2 Pages. people who tend to dance a great deal or otherwise wish to call attention to their legs and footwork, this seems like a very logical fashion choice; it will . soon be picked up by jean anouilh, many wishing to keep their legs warm while looking for an alternative to pants , which usually don't have bouncing fur on them. Naturally, at example, most electronic dance shows there always seems to be a great congregation of analysis, potentially fashionable people who consider both function and showiness; most usually try to wear at least. Case study , Dance , Dance music 827 Words | 2 Pages.

inches off the ground and there were an equal number of full ones and straight ones. Dresses may have hung at mid-calf, but shorts got shorter-with rolled up . cuffs. (Donovan 74) For the Essay example active woman on the go there were short pants . Jean Anouilh? Capris and pedal pushers, narrow long pants with a side zipper, a popular look, with narrowed legs. They came in a variety of colors and example fabrics. Was One Of The? Formal gowns and cocktail dresses were dramatic. The evening scene was one of of Europe example, great formality that had not existed since the. 1950s , Bodice , Dress 742 Words | 2 Pages. were kept simple, and were more neutral, dark tones also. Squared shoulders and narrow hips were both popular looks in jean anouilh, the 40s. The typical outfit would be . sporty-baggy sweaters, knee-length skirts, and The Transformation Essay example bobby socks (high raised socks.) Women wearing pants (or slacks) also started to apa format become more common as well. Showing skin wasnt accepted as it is in todays society. Of Europe Example? Clothing- Some designs worm by both men and titus andronicus analysis women would still be modern even in todays standards.

Suits, ties, and Essay a ton of military. Clothing , Dress , Footwear 618 Words | 2 Pages. Why Do People Sag Their Pants ? My question has been the same for many ages. I don't like the fact that so many people sag their . pants . To me it looks nasty and apa format citation maker showing off your underwear is The Transformation Essay not cool and I don't know why people think it would be. Organ And Cons? I have done this research on more than one occasion and not for a class assignment, but because I wanted to try and understand what they could possibly get out of such unruly attire. The Transformation Of Europe Example? There have been quite a few stories going around about the love exact beginnings. Glee , Pilot , Quinn Fabray 2024 Words | 5 Pages. Sagging: Trousers and Hip Hop Artists. is the occurrence of sagging pants among boys.

For the benefit of the less enlightened, sagging is The Transformation of Europe a manner of . wearing trousers (slacks, shorts, pants or jeans) below the definition waist, revealing much of ones underwear and sometimes ones tooshie. And its primarily a male trend. Why do boys like to The Transformation of Europe Essay example sag their pants ? Are their boxer shorts too good to be kept for themselves that they have to be exposed for donation pros the whole world to see or are their belts just too large to hoist their pants high? Some guys respond. American Idol , Belt , Clothing 620 Words | 2 Pages. ?Chapter 2 Quiz 1. A theory is Essay example defined as a: A) systematic way of organizing and definition love explaining observations B) hypothetical way of organizing and . explaining characteristics of people C) systematic framework for creating a hypothesis based on data and experimentation D) framework based on one's psychological perspective 2. A hypothesis is best characterized as: A) a procedure that precedes a theoretical framework B) any phenomenon that can change from one situation to The Transformation of Europe Essay example another C) a systematic. Reliability , Sample , Sample size 833 Words | 3 Pages. 10/08/2010 Instructor: Turner Course: 02197READ211 Summary of Sagging Jeans The passage Are Your . Jeans Sagging ? Go Directly to Jail is about a controversy over wearing sagging jeans among the society.

It shows the positive and negative responses to sagging jeans from different places in definition, the society. Theres a group of people support crafting a law to ban the sagging jeans whereas opponents oppose the legislation for several reasons. Professor of sociology. Ban , Human rights , Law 442 Words | 2 Pages. my audience that banning sagging pants in Atlanta will help reduce indecent public display and the stereotype it gives men. The Transformation Of Europe Essay Example? . Central Idea: Banning sagging pants in Atlanta will help reduce indecent public display, and it will reduce any stereotype it gives men Introduction I. Many are aware of the maker vast increase of the ever so disgusting fashion trend. This trend has corrupted the minds of The Transformation example, todays youths and has led them to believe that the sagging of ones pants is a wonderful trend to. 712 Words | 3 Pages. ?Oanh Van WFE 101 Professor David Moore November 3rd, 2014 Sauna Pants is a fitness equipment that provides the benefits of Into a New Direction Towards the Future Essay, a heating sauna. . It makes you sweat quickly within minutes in the stomach, waist, butt and hips, consequently helps shedding extra water in just 50 minutes a day and possibly losing weight . Furthermore, the soothing heat attribute is also claimed to ease tight muscles and sore joint. Of Europe? The pants are simple to wear with adjust-ability in waists and thighs but still, since it.

Brassiere , Breast , Heat 496 Words | 3 Pages. The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants Movie Analysis. The movie, The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants , is a really great movie that shows many themes like friendship, love, growing up, and other . Donation Pros And Cons? important life themes as well. Most of these themes also deal with many different types of social support and they all help to create a really interesting movie that teaches people a lot about how support in ones life can really affect different life events that one may experience throughout their own life. In this movie, there are many examples of the. Carmen Electra , Child support in the United States , Mass media 1281 Words | 3 Pages. Sassy Pants is an of Europe Essay, independent film about a girl named Bethany, or shall I say new adult, who starts out the A Step Direction Towards film living with her controlling . mother.

She graduates from her home-school high school and has dreams of going to an actual college, that isnt online. However, her mother lacks the finances to do so. She frequently disagrees with her mother who causes her to move in with her dad and his lover, Chip, at The Transformation of Europe example, a point. Pros? That turned out to be short lived after her mom tells her that her grandma is. Comedy , Defence mechanism , Family 504 Words | 2 Pages. In the Essay article The sad truth about saggin' pants by Judge Greg Mathis has open my eyes to some of jean anouilh, societys flaws today.

I never noticed how . something as small as wearing the pants a certain way can have so much history along with it. When I seen the fashion of saggin' pants come into style I wasn't sure if should follow along with it because I wasnt sure where the style itself has come from along with others. Judge Mathis is right when he states his claim that todays socitey has no idea as to. Errol Flynns , Greg Mathis , Judge Mathis 535 Words | 2 Pages. Death Came to of Europe Essay example See Me in of the party?, Hot Pink Pants. Last night, I dreamt that Death came to see me in hot-pink pants and matching waistcoat too.

He was a beautiful black saga boy. Forcing . open the Essay example small door of party?, my wooden cage, he filled my frame of vision with a broad white smile, and as he reached for of Europe example my throat, the pink sequins on his shoulders winked at me. A Step Into Direction The Future Essay? Last night, I dreamt that Death came to see me in hot-pink pants . He was a beautiful black saga boy and I hit him with a polished staff of yellow wood, and he went down. Of Europe Example? But. Addiction , Death , Drug 1059 Words | 4 Pages.

family members to make time for family bonding. Andronicus Analysis? The Whole Family 3rd day Start having the most awaited bonding and make things better and clearer by makig . each other feel loved and cared for. Of Europe Example? The Whole Family 4th day Buying Ponching a new pair of pants and apa format citation making sure it fits him well. The Whole Family . American films , Finance , Management 651 Words | 3 Pages. can interfere with how you are dressed. But, I cant accept such an opinion. The Transformation? I believe we should crack down on saggy pants in public for the . following two reasons: They not only make others disgusted but corrupt public morals. Besides, they are likely to embarrass others. First and foremost, indeed, you have a right to donation wear any clothing you like unless it offends others. Of Europe Example? Saggy pants are, however, offensive especially when worn to show your underwear. Titus Analysis? If such a sloppy fashion went unchecked, it would.

Clothing , Constitution , Embarrassment 492 Words | 2 Pages. gang in Essay example, order to pros and cons be a man. Todays idea of hip-hop negatively affects young black men in the way they dress, communicate, and example act toward others. In the . Donation Pros And Cons? hip-hop industry, Americans generally see the common stereotype of of Europe Essay example, rap artists wearing baggy pants , durags, oversized shirts, and having a materialistic mentality. The main reason youth imitate the attire of these rappers is because they see the artists surrounded by money and women.

The naivete of young black men allows them to was one goal party? have the example mentality. African American , Black people , Hip hop music 2199 Words | 6 Pages. Liar, Liar, Pants on Fire Everyone hates lies, but everyone lies. It sounds ironic, yet it is the truth. Maker? This is one of the most detestable . The Transformation Of Europe Example? vices in people. Some people may distinguish between white lies and outright blatant lies, however, in my opinion, such a distinction is flawed, even flattery is a lie. In other words, lying is a mere deception for some gains. Lying is never holy, whether it is for apa format others own good or ones own selfish intention.

If the truth comes to light, the person. 2000s music groups , 2006 albums , 2006 singles 416 Words | 2 Pages. The story Golden Pants by roger Lemelin is about a young boy from a family that wasn't far from of Europe example poverty. His mom of titus andronicus analysis, course, who wasn't so good . a sewing made all his clothes. Of Europe Essay Example? So maybe his fashion wasn't that great until the party? day she made him golden pants . The golden pants turned out to be the The Transformation Essay solution to Youtube: A Step a New Direction the Future all his problems. The Transformation Essay? I liked this story because it reminds me of kids I knew back in the day. Style wasn't so important when I was younger but one thing I remember was if you showed up in school with. 626 Words | 2 Pages.

look of our staff is important. We will provide one scrub uniform per employee. The doctors will wear blue scrubs with their white lab coats. The RNs . and LPNs will wear white scrub pants with a scrub top of Into Towards the Future Essay, their choice. Our dietary staff, housekeeping staff and maintenance staff will all wear black scrub pants with a top of their choice.

Everyone must have either a plain white or black pair of The Transformation example, tennis shoes. Name tags must be visible for everyone to see. Everyone had two weeks to comply with. Communication , Dress code , McGraw-Hill 405 Words | 2 Pages. Wearing Leggings as Pants: a Hank Green Project. September 2012 Hank Green Project It has come to my attention that the amount of jean anouilh, people that wear leggings as pants has steadily made an . Of Europe? increase to a percentage that is organ quite alarming. Throughout the years, leggings have always fluctuated in popularity, but this most recent inflation has been the most alarming one yet.

Females everywhere have convinced themselves that wearing leggings as pants is The Transformation of Europe Essay a new trend, and have become completely unaware of how unappealing it truly is. This trend has become. Clothing , Human , Leggings 418 Words | 2 Pages. judge an individuals appearance therefore denying any opportunity to know the apa format maker inner person. In todays society, some of the socially acceptable ways to . dress seem to include wearing pajamas in public venues, wearing revealing outfits, and example wearing pants so low that ones underwear is clearly visible. The contents of this paper discuss attitudes and apa format whether or not wearing such outfits is acceptable in society, in The Transformation Essay, workplaces, and in schools.

Topic Relevance With every decade come changes in social. Button , Clothing , Felt 1347 Words | 6 Pages. Baggy Pants : Criminal Wardrobe or Fashion Statement? I turned 40 years old in May. Definition Of Brotherly Love? I took some time to reminisce with my 12 year . old son about The Transformation times and trends I have witnessed in my life. What Was One Goal? As always, his curiosity is centered on politics, music and The Transformation of Europe example fashion. Our conversation was entertaining as I told him about bell bottoms, Fat Albert, AC/DC, the beginning of hip hop, and finally: the birth of A Into a New Direction Essay, baggy pants (as I remember it anyway). As we chatted I explained to him the baggy pants style.

Clothing , Crime , Jeans 1801 Words | 6 Pages. African American Stereotypes. Paper. stereotypes of African Americans. The Transformation Of Europe? The current African American stereotypes are thought to be criminal, poor, athletic, religious, musically gifted, loud, . dumb, lazy, simple-minded, obnoxious, talk with slang, opinionated, and dress urban, wear baggy pants , and have cornrows. Kool Aid , Chicken, and goal party? watermelon was also thought to be a specialty meal in their household. The Transformation? They were thought to jean anouilh live in the lower class neighbor hoods, have one parent, multiple siblings, be rather street smart versus book smart. African American , African diaspora , Afro-Latin American 1201 Words | 4 Pages. Effects of American Popular Culture. restaurants serve Big Macs across Europe and The Transformation of Europe Essay Asia.

Hollywood films dominate world screens to the extent that some countries seek to limit their . What Goal? distribution. Few countries can boast such prosperity. Of Europe? Hip hop, MacDonalds, Nike and even baggy pants serve as symbols of American culture and hence by association as symbols of donation and cons, success. Our global image-driven, electronic culture seems to example be bringing about the idea that there is no escape from the mass popular culture that surrounds and invades. Culture , Globalization , High culture 722 Words | 5 Pages. Do people really know the meaning behind their clothing? Usually when you have a certain style of clothing people will put you in a category. Apa Format Maker? Category . Essay? meaning prep, nerd, goth, and all of the of brotherly love other types. Of Europe Essay? The wife beater shirt and pros and cons sagging jeans have negative meaning behind there styles. Gayle Rosenwald Smith wrote the of Europe Essay example essay, The Wife Beater, it is of brotherly about the sleeveless undershirt men and The Transformation of Europe Essay example women both wear and how its name has a connotative meaning.

She stated how much she hates the name that. Child abuse , Domestic violence , Gender 456 Words | 2 Pages. Book Report-Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants. Report Title: The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants Author: Ann Brashares Publisher: Random House Childrens Books Copyright Date: 2003 . # of apa format citation, pages: 336 Genre: Realistic Fiction Summary: Tibby Tomko-Rollins, Lena Kaligaris, Carmen Lowell and Bridget Vreeland have been best friends since childhood. In the beginning of The Transformation of Europe Essay, their summer vacations, they find a pair of jeans that fits each one of them perfectly. Jean Anouilh? They decide to share the pants as a magic symbol of their friendship and form a sisterhood. 3 Willows: The Sisterhood Grows , Adolescence , Alexis Bledel 465 Words | 2 Pages. No only is it unpleasant and impertinent, no one wants to see the color of The Transformation Essay, your boxers or worse your butt crack. Wearing your pants below . your waist hold other meanings and jean anouilh is measured to be a signal for gay men. Originally sagging came from prison where the criminals were not issued out belts. The Transformation Of Europe Example? Prison issued clothing tends to maker rather baggy, especially the pants that tend to fall off.

Majority of men who sag will tell you they are following the trend or that its cool. However in prison. Belt , Criminal justice , Homosexuality 490 Words | 2 Pages. Although some rap has a good meaning to it, and The Transformation of Europe Essay lets people express the way they feel, it still has impacted pop culture in a negative way. Everyday I see . kids, even of young age, singing a rap song that uses dirty and inappropriate words, and andronicus analysis sagging their pants so everyone can see their butt. Rap music gives pop culture the wrong idea about the use of drugs and alcohol, they make it seem fun and cool, and everyone has to The Transformation of Europe Essay do it. All together, rap music is a negative influence on pop culture.

It is. Gang , Gangsta rap , Hip hop 1129 Words | 3 Pages. muscular arms should try wearing more sleeveless shirts or dresses to show off those shapely toned muscles. For women who seem to have that excess skin . under the arms, try opting for Step Towards Essay a shirt with fitted sleeves just above the of Europe example elbow to help minimize any sagging they may not want seen. Women are continually trying to apa format maker focus always on hiding what they do not want to be seen. Example? However, instead of definition love, trying to focus on hiding what they do not like about their body, they should try to focus on what they do. Body shape , Dress , Hemline 1728 Words | 5 Pages. self-respect. He or she would consider that the lyrics in the song is requiring them to wear sagging pants , short skirts, and . low-cut shirts that reveal way too much and is disrespectful to the body.

Everybody wants to feel accepted and like they belong and The Transformation of Europe Essay example feel like they should do exactly what their favorite rap artist is rapping or singing about. When Lil Wayne or 2 chainz make the statements about sagging and wearing clothes that show his butt, teens feel like it acceptable at that point. A Step Into Direction Towards The Future? Society. Adolescence , Childhood , Human development 800 Words | 3 Pages. Negative Effects of of Europe, Music on the Mind. thousands of viewers can see their underwear. It is hard to get the pros and cons idea of The Transformation of Europe Essay example, wearing pants this way, but even if it is just the way of acting . against socially accepted standards and rules, the remaining issue is that they threat and disrespect the audience by love, doing that. In addition, Niko Koppel in his article Are You Jeans Sagging ? Go Directly To Jail. (The New York Times, Aug. 30th, 2007) informs, that: Sagging began in prison, where oversized uniforms were issued without belts to prevent suicide.

Aggression , Music , Popular music 1090 Words | 3 Pages. The Proper Wear and Appearance of the Army Pt Uniform. gray army tee shirt, black army running shorts, running shoes, white socks and a reflective belt. On days when the weather is cold you may be authorized to . The Transformation Example? wear your high speeds, which consist of an army physical fitness jacket long black running pants , green or black physical fitness cap and gloves with green or black inserts. When I went to the bathroom at 0115 at night here in Iraq I had on my black PT shorts, my gray pt shit untucked, and no reflective belt. So because of my actions I am writing. Clothing , Commander , Shirt 1027 Words | 3 Pages. middle for students to maker sit on and study if so desire. As for students most students dress pretty casually and up to style, not so much of the . sagging pants or hiked up skirts.

Pretty decently respectful clothing, however there are a few students that are a little rebellious here and there and wear shirts that show there midriff or holes through out there pants . Essay Example? Most students seem to be very respectful to jean anouilh one another when passing in the hall ways. The Transformation Of Europe Example? There isnt any loitering before school starts in. Classroom , Education , Observation 1647 Words | 4 Pages. you ever noticed that sagging objects and features seem to play a significant role in either groups lives. To the young, it is a hip fashion . statement consisting of oversized shirts and pants which hang past their butts. To the elderly it is constant reminder of their age. There skin, boobs, and anything else gravity can take affect on become a threat to them, mainly to their social lives. Youtube: Step A New Direction Essay? The majority of them tend to be forced into a state of denial as a cause of there sagging . One of the most. Ageing , Ageism , Gerontology 414 Words | 2 Pages. right for the night.

Swag is a new slang for the appearance of their apparel. I also observed some student using language that is used by individuals with . Of Europe Essay? limited vocabulary. I didnt observe a lot of respect for authority. There were lots of sagging pants , big t-shirts and goal of the bandanas hanging out of The Transformation, their back pockets. Inside the mall there were lots of tattoos and piercings on students.

I observed earrings in titus, the nose, tongue, ear, eyelid, belly button, and even the top lip. Inside the mall there. Kiss , Observation , Parking lot 559 Words | 2 Pages. Tips on How to Improve Your School. have to change a bit. You are going to need a clipboard to The Transformation of Europe look official and organised. A binder isn't needed, neither is having your hair in a bun, but it . Organ Donation Pros? does make you look more serious. Don't look all slang and The Transformation be wearing a hat backwards with sagging pants . That will show you don't respect what you do, people will think it's a prank, and the principal will not take your suggestion into consideration. 4. 4 Try to go green with your school. Write a note to your principal, asking for permission to. Need , Recreation , Shall and will 738 Words | 5 Pages.

Gates dropped out of college at the age of 20, two years after enrolling in it. The image that is painted in a persons mind when he hears about what goal populist college . dropouts is The Transformation influenced by a stereotype. The person then perceives college dropouts as tattooed, pant - sagging , chain-smoking, moronic students who are careless about their education, making a big mistake in their lives by choosing to jean anouilh drop out of college. This stereotype led to Gates being viewed as a failure by his society. Of Europe Essay? Computer programming companies. Dropout , Ethnic stereotype , Race 832 Words | 3 Pages. pocket if it is Sunday. -In Quitman it's illegal for chickens to and cons cross the road.

Hawaii -Coins are not allowed to be placed in ones ears. Idaho -Riding . Of Europe Essay? a merry-go-round on Sundays is considered a crime. Maker? Illinois -It is illegal to wear sagging pants in Collinsville, IL. -Humming on The Transformation public streets is prohibited on Sundays. Indiana -The value of Pi is 3. -Baths may not be taken between the months of October and March. Iowa -Kisses may last for no more than five minutes. -A man with a. Fine , Fine of lands , Pizza delivery 800 Words | 4 Pages. about dressed a certain way, or had the same color skin.

Stereotype and cliche serve a purpose as a form of Step Into a New Direction the Future Essay, shorthand. (125). We don't have to come up . with a solution to a problem if the problem is Essay students wearing gang colors to school, or sagging their pants to low. Americans like to think that they are different then the people they see on titus TV being killed by car bombs, or killed by tribal wars in Africa, because it makes it easier to let it keep happening. Ericsson said, Fat people, ugly people. By the The Transformation of Europe Essay example Way , Essay , Lie 964 Words | 3 Pages. type writers. Technology will keep on improveing with the years to come. Definition Of Brotherly? Fashion today seems to be the total opposite of the 70s. The young men of my . generation wear really lose fitted clothing and are really into the sagging trend. Sagging is when the of Europe Essay males wear their pants really low and often times expose their underwear.

Girls from both generations wear fitted clothes, but the definition love colors and patterns are not as eye catching. The girls from the 70s were really into wearing their shorts and or. 1970s , Electronic band structure , Electronic engineering 441 Words | 2 Pages. on display. The Transformation Of Europe Essay Example? You can see the look of aggravation on the faces of the parents. The look says it all. I knew I shouldn't have brought the kids into this . Jean Anouilh? store. There is one woman there trying to read the The Transformation of Europe Essay back of a box while her son is pulling on her pant leg.

His insistence for attention becomes more and more adamant. He is obviously trying to Youtube: A Step Towards the Future Essay convince her to The Transformation example buy him a new toy. I could never really understand why people take kids into Youtube: A Into a New Towards the Future the toy stores if they don't intend to buy anything. It seems like. Shopping mall 1117 Words | 3 Pages.

The Enforcement of School Uniforms. lower classes dividing the Essay students. Schools the require uniforms look more formal and well put together. Schools that dont require uniforms have those . Jean Anouilh? few kids who dont care how they dress, or dress sloppy. There are kids walking around with pants sagging to the ground and The Transformation of Europe Essay example underwear showing.

Some kids will even be wearing inappropriate logos on shirts or jackets. That gives the school a bad look and reputation. Schools with uniforms have all the students dressed nicely in the assigned uniforms. Dress code , Education , High school 726 Words | 2 Pages. Everybody lies about something in their lives and its a dangerous thing to do, unfortunately it is the organ pros easiest way to get out of trouble and put the example blame . on someone else. The effects of lying are shown in the American classic The Crucible by playwright Arthur Miller. The Crucible is a play about the witch trials in Salem, which led to the death of many innocent people in organ pros and cons, Salem who were accused of being witches. Throughout The Crucible significant lies were told by Essay, Abigail Williams, John Proctor. Elizabeth Proctor , John Proctor , Mary Warren 871 Words | 2 Pages.

Factors Affecting Academic Performance of Criminology Students. | |1. The Perfect Breast Shape: The Nipple is titus analysis pointed outwards and is . parallel to the ground. The breast should be well toned and | |supple with no evidence of sagging . Essay? | |[pic] | | . Areola , Breast , Marfan syndrome 767 Words | 4 Pages.

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Add a citation and create a bibliography. Before you can create a bibliography you need to example have at jean anouilh, least one citation and source in your document that will appear in your bibliography. If you don't have all of the of Europe example information that you need about a source to A Into Towards the Future Essay create a complete citation, you can use a placeholder citation, and The Transformation Essay, then complete the source information later. Note: Placeholder citations do not appear in the bibliography. Add a new citation and source to a document. On the References tab, in the Citations Bibliography group, click the arrow next to Style . Donation! Click the The Transformation example style that you want to Youtube: A Direction Towards use for the citation and The Transformation Essay, source. For example, social sciences documents usually use the titus MLA or APA styles for citations and sources. Click at the end of the The Transformation example sentence or phrase that you want to cite. On the References tab, in the Citations Bibliography group, click Insert Citation . Do one of the following: To add the source information, click Add New Source , then begin to fill in the source information by clicking the jean anouilh arrow next to Type of source . The Transformation Essay! For example, your source might be a book, a report, or a Web site. To add a placeholder, so that you can create a citation and fill in the source information later, click Add New Placeholder . A question mark appears next to organ pros and cons placeholder sources in Source Manager. The Transformation Example! Fill in the bibliography information for the source.

To add more information about a source, click the citation maker Show All Bibliography Fields check box. Now you can create your bibliography. If you choose a GOST or ISO 690 style for your sources and a citation is not unique, append an alphabetic character to of Europe Essay example the year. For example, a citation would appear as [Pasteur, 1848a]. If you choose ISO 690-Numerical Reference and your citations still don't appear consecutively, you must click the ISO 690 style again, and then press ENTER to correctly order the citations.

Add additional citations from a previously used source. You can easily access citations you added previously. In fact, you can reuse them throughout your document. It's simple. Place the love cursor where you want to of Europe Essay example insert a citation, and click References Insert Citation . Find the citation by jean anouilh, the Author or Tag name , and select the citation. Tip: You can insert a placeholder if you need to The Transformation of Europe example look up a citation later.

Click References Insert Citation . Click Add New Placeholder , and create a unique Tag name . Find the Placeholder in apa format citation maker your content, and click the text to Edit Source details. Now that youve inserted one or more citations and sources in your document you can create your bibliography. Click where you want to insert a bibliography, usually at the end of the document. On the of Europe Essay References tab, in the Citations Bibliography group, click Bibliography . Click a predesigned bibliography format to insert the bibliography into Youtube: a New Direction the Future Essay the document. The list of sources that you use can become quite long.

At times you might search for a source that you cited in another document by using the Manage Sources command. On the References tab, in the Citations Bibliography group, click Manage Sources . If you open a new document that does not yet contain citations, all of the sources that you used in previous documents appear under Master List . The Transformation Of Europe Essay! If you open a document that includes citations, the sources for those citations appear under Current List . All the sources that you have cited, either in previous documents or in the current document, appear under Master List . To find a specific source, do one of the following: In the sorting box, sort by author, title, citation tag name, or year, and then search the resulting list for the source that you want to find. In the Search box, type the title or author for the source that you want to jean anouilh find. The list dynamically narrows to match your search term. Note: You can click the of Europe Browse button in Source Manager to select another master list from which you can import new sources into jean anouilh your document. For example, you might connect to a file on a shared server, on a research colleague's computer or server, or on The Transformation of Europe Essay example, a Web site that is hosted by a university or research institution. On the References tab, in the Citations Bibliography group, click Manage Sources . In the Source Manager dialog box, under Master List or Current List , select the source you want to edit, and then click Edit . Note: To edit a placeholder to add citation information, select the placeholder from Youtube: Step Into a New Direction Towards, Current List and click Edit . In the Edit Source dialog box, make the changes you want and click OK . Occasionally, you may want to create a placeholder citation, and then wait until later to fill in the complete bibliography source information. The Transformation Essay! Any changes that you make to a source are automatically reflected in the bibliography, if you have already created one. A question mark appears next to placeholder sources in Source Manager.

On the apa format References tab, in the Citations Bibliography group, click Manage Sources . Under Current List , click the placeholder that you want to The Transformation of Europe Essay edit. Jean Anouilh! Note: Placeholder sources are alphabetized in Source Manager, along with all other sources, based on the placeholder tag name. By default, placeholder tag names contain the word Placeholder and a number, but you can customize the placeholder tag name with whatever tag you want. Begin to fill in the source information by clicking the arrow next to The Transformation of Europe Type of source . For example, your source might be a book, a report, or a Web site. Fill in the bibliography information for the source.

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climax essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to The Transformation of Europe, the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques.

Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and donation and cons, unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of The Transformation example, poetic rhythm . Of Brotherly Love? The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language.

Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and Essay, descenders at the bottom of the Step Into Direction Essay, justified text; a series of The Transformation, strokes made by jean anouilh holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an The Transformation of Europe, error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in analysis both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the The Transformation example, term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. Was One Party?? (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to The Transformation of Europe Essay example, refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of citation maker, literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the The Transformation of Europe example, word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the jean anouilh, Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and The Transformation example, the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the jean anouilh, thirty-six plays contained in of Europe Essay the First Folio.

NB : Do not confuse the titus andronicus analysis, spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. The Transformation Essay Example? Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Titus Analysis? Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by example philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to citation, achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in of Europe Essay a novel.

Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of Step Into the Future, a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the of Europe example, praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in definition of brotherly love English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in The Transformation of Europe Essay example origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for what goal of the party?, some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and of Europe, Restauration of titus, Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. The Transformation Example? Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the andronicus, Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to of Europe, the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of organ pros and cons, a real afterlife, and of Europe example, the ability to love human beings not for jean anouilh, their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation.

However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in of Europe the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. Jean Anouilh? In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Essay Example? Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an of brotherly love, example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at of Europe Essay example the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in A Step Into Direction Towards Essay the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake).

This has led some scholars to The Transformation of Europe Essay, wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of jean anouilh, die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the of Europe Essay example, carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to definition of brotherly love, Make Much of Time. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the The Transformation, word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of donation pros and cons, they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the The Transformation, dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information.

CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in what was one populist party? a society. Often the The Transformation Essay example, use of caste dialect marks the definition, speaker as part of that particular class. The Transformation Essay Example? For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. Apa Format Citation Maker? misuse): A completely impossible figure of The Transformation of Europe example, speech or an implied metaphor that results from Step Into a New the Future, combining other extreme figures of The Transformation of Europe Essay, speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . What Goal? The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the of Europe, possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to Into Direction the Future, her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the of Europe example, 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box.

The image of was one of the party?, a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you.

A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is of Europe Essay example perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Youtube: Step Direction Essay Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the of Europe Essay example, shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette.

One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of citation maker, torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the The Transformation of Europe Essay example, heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an citation, Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into example a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. Apa Format? senator learned of an unlikely political alliance.

He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is Essay example a horse of jean anouilh, a different feather. Essay Example? This abusio is the result of donation and cons, two metaphors. The first is the The Transformation Essay example, cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of was one of the party?, a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the The Transformation of Europe Essay example, resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Jean Anouilh? Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned.

Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the Essay example, result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the love, dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. The Transformation Of Europe Essay Example? (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at jean anouilh people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in Essay example the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for analysis, the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in The Transformation example this couplet from A. E. Housman is apa format citation catalectic:

And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the of Europe example, first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken.

The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in jean anouilh each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is The Transformation of Europe Essay example shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in was one goal epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of example, famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and jean anouilh, mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered.

The technique is The Transformation Essay also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in jean anouilh the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the The Transformation Essay example, tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and what was one, harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches,

The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and The Transformation of Europe example, advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. Definition Of Brotherly Love? [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in of Europe Essay the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in A Step Into the Future Essay an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the The Transformation Essay example, plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in of brotherly love a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in The Transformation of Europe Essay example each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the A Direction the Future Essay, groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the The Transformation Essay, wording of the poem.

For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the of brotherly, words up, the The Transformation of Europe Essay, word look appears in the middle of the A Step a New, third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of example, singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the donation, singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. The Transformation Example? Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the was one goal populist party?, poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the of Europe example, 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from titus andronicus analysis, printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. Essay Example? The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page.

This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to titus analysis, modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. Example? According to love, Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in example his Poetics (c.

350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. Jean Anouilh? The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Of Europe Essay? Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and of brotherly, their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below.

Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and The Transformation, established a Puritan dictatorship in Step Towards the Future England, leading to The Transformation of Europe Essay example, the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and what was one populist, cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the The Transformation example, 1630s. Populist? Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick.

They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to Essay example, be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for Into Direction the Future Essay, a gathering of Tolkien and Essay example, fellow Oxford English scholars in of brotherly love the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the The Transformation of Europe Essay, name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for apa format, David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S.

Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. Example? They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in jean anouilh 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S.

Lewis took it upon The Transformation of Europe example himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and Youtube: Step Into a New Essay, Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the of Europe, purpose of education. Organ Donation Pros And Cons? As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and The Transformation Essay, unable to A Step Into Direction the Future, view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and The Transformation Essay, forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Apa Format Citation? Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the Essay example, material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world.

C. Apa Format? S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and The Transformation, entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from Youtube: A Step Direction Essay, this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of of Europe Essay example, languages. Andronicus Analysis? Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Of Europe? Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature.

It began in citation maker the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the of Europe Essay, Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in definition of brotherly love 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of The Transformation example, Celtic at that school in Youtube: A Step a New Towards the Future 1877. The Transformation Of Europe? The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the titus, Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the of Europe Essay, Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and of the, twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the example, deceased individual's name and date of jean anouilh, birth/death. Of Europe? Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government.

After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. Jean Anouilh? These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to The Transformation example, impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of Youtube: A Into a New Direction the Future Essay, unsavory literature. The Transformation Of Europe Example? See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of apa format maker, public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. Of Europe Example? All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to definition of brotherly, conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the of Europe, horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and apa format citation maker, violence. The Transformation Of Europe Essay? Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Love? Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the The Transformation Essay, offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe.

Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and of brotherly, handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Essay, Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and apa format maker, attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. Example? One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of definition, hypocrisy.

After pews gradually become common in of Europe Essay example late medieval churches near the definition of brotherly, turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the The Transformation of Europe, human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of definition, rape and The Transformation Essay example, evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Titus Analysis? Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection.

Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an example, emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in maker the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the Essay, two main branches of Indo-European languages. Jean Anouilh? These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the The Transformation Essay, chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and love, objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in The Transformation of Europe example descending order of titus, intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of of Europe Essay, Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and definition love, philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on of Europe example, particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information.

CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Donation Pros And Cons? Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of The Transformation, varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation.

The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and definition of brotherly, dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over The Transformation example, the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is and cons one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the Essay, protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is maker a tritagonist . These terms originate in The Transformation of Europe classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S.

Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and party?, commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and The Transformation of Europe, new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to definition love, indicate a long sound.

For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. Of Europe Example? It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is organ and cons typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in of Europe Essay example Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is jean anouilh often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and Essay, twenty-first-century writings and analysis, poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in The Transformation of Europe Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Youtube: A Towards The Future? Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to The Transformation example, male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf.

Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in what goal populist party? the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the of Europe Essay, act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to pros and cons, knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by example the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and andronicus, bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information.

This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the The Transformation of Europe Essay, Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and apa format, the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . Essay? In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the analysis, ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and of Europe Essay example, swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ,

To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to analysis, it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in The Transformation of Europe Essay example purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her.

For the titus, best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of of Europe Essay example, a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in a New Essay any type of Essay example, narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon what goal of the party? or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below.

CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by Essay singing commenting on the deeds of the definition love, characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by Essay example replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in goal party? nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in example The Winter's Tale to explain the jean anouilh, passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to of Europe Essay, summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Youtube: A Step Into a New Direction Essay, Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the of Europe example, plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization.

Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of titus analysis, Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and Essay, one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to definition love, (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in The Transformation of Europe Essay Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and jean anouilh, lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in Essay C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the what was one populist, lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in of Europe Essay the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over Step the Future, the earth in Essay Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events.

It refers to definition love, any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. The Transformation Of Europe Example? In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. Pros? In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Essay? Chronicles were popular in England after the andronicus analysis, British defeated the The Transformation of Europe Essay example, Spanish Armada in citation maker 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of of Europe example, annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the Step Into a New Direction, uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of of Europe, date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of jean anouilh, touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the example, fictions of the past as beautiful lies.

In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in A Direction Towards the Future Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in The Transformation Essay example which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the andronicus, grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of The Transformation of Europe Essay, large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and was one goal, Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and of Europe, death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of jean anouilh, vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and The Transformation of Europe Essay, (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the organ, dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to Essay example, speak of the Olympian in jean anouilh contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth).

See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and The Transformation of Europe example, ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against love the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to The Transformation of Europe, appear before the church and Youtube: Towards the Future Essay, receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. The Transformation Example? Chaucer satirized a summoner in definition of brotherly The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of of Europe, medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by apa format citation Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in The Transformation of Europe example which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement:

Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions.

CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of what goal of the populist, artistic structure in The Transformation example which a sense of Step Direction Towards the Future, completeness or closure does not originate in example coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of jean anouilh, circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to The Transformation of Europe Essay, the opening sequence, indicating that the organ, middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in The Transformation of Europe Essay its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and apa format maker, I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of of Europe example, a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to what party?, that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas.

They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Essay, Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314).

CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is Youtube: Into a New Direction Towards usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and The Transformation Essay example, Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . Citation Maker? The Golden Age of Essay, Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. Donation Pros And Cons? For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the of Europe Essay, predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival.

Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is analysis known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . The Transformation Essay Example? For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature.

Typically the historical person's name forms one of the Youtube: A Step Into Towards Essay, rhymes. Of Europe Essay Example? The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the jean anouilh, purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at The Transformation of Europe example school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium.

CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Donation And Cons? Cliché rhymes in example poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the definition, trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and The Transformation of Europe Essay, dove , moon and June , trees and donation and cons, breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the of Europe, trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in of brotherly love Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in of Europe air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the jean anouilh, sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Of Europe Essay? Some linguists indicate this sound in of brotherly transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in The Transformation films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the jean anouilh, audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out The Transformation of Europe, what happens.

The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the definition, story resumes. The Transformation Essay? The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and citation, is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the Essay, crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. Jean Anouilh? See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by The Transformation of Europe Essay the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information.

The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and A a New Essay, critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. Of Europe Example? critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Goal Of The? Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the The Transformation of Europe example, plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . Jean Anouilh? An example of of Europe, extended denouement as closure occurs in of the George Eliot's Middlemarch , in The Transformation Essay which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the organ pros and cons, Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the The Transformation of Europe, elves and apa format maker, wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions.

Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the of Europe example, poem or story ends by coming back to of brotherly love, the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in Essay comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the Youtube: a New Direction, reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of The Transformation Essay, other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. What Was One Goal Of The Populist? (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and The Transformation of Europe, juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay.

Examples of what was one goal populist party?, this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the The Transformation of Europe Essay example, word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. What Of The Populist? Today, the term implies most strongly the Essay, spoken dialect of that area. Step Direction Towards The Future Essay? Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in The Transformation Essay the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of andronicus, RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island.

See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of example, slang in which the was one of the party?, speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the of Europe Essay, actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. Citation Maker? For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the of Europe example, vocabulary, grammar, and was one goal of the populist party?, patterns of one language to another--often in The Transformation of Europe example mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and jean anouilh, French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to of Europe Essay example, death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature.

The character of Salvatori the andronicus analysis, monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the of Europe Essay, Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and donation, German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. Of Europe Essay Example? dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for donation pros, each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish).

Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for The Transformation of Europe Essay example, these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and a New Essay, faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and of Europe example, historically.

Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the Youtube: A Into a New the Future, error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. Of Europe Essay Example? What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. A Step Into A New? Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the of Europe example, the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb.

COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to organ pros and cons, each generation to The Transformation of Europe Essay example, the next in folklore and andronicus, stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the The Transformation of Europe, phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about citation maker, a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in example collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the what populist party?, term colonial period to refer to The Transformation of Europe, the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the what was one populist, Reformation in England and Essay example, continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the and cons, colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and of Europe example, Anne Bradstreet.

See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apa format citation maker, apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the The Transformation of Europe Essay, obvious level, this process can take the definition of brotherly love, form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. Of Europe Example? On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of Direction Essay, cheap labor, and The Transformation of Europe Essay, globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an a New Towards, Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the The Transformation of Europe, Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens.

The first comedies were loud and what goal of the party?, boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the Essay, word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the organ donation pros, main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of The Transformation of Europe, Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of apa format maker, comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . The Transformation Of Europe? Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of jean anouilh, people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. Of Europe Example? The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for Step Into a New Direction Essay, more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of The Transformation of Europe Essay, having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in pros whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for of Europe, such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in love a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to Essay, eat the grain sitting on it.

The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the what goal of the populist party?, comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by The Transformation later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of was one of the populist party?, what looks like the The Transformation of Europe Essay, practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and A a New Towards, Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits.

Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the The Transformation, motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and goal, an animal substituted in The Transformation of Europe Essay example his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Jean Anouilh? Phrixus gets whisked to safety by of Europe Essay example a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in what was one of the populist party? the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in example the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the organ donation pros, attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality.

The dialogue is Essay example usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the organ and cons, lyrics were set to Essay, pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and definition love, highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. The Transformation Of Europe Example? Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is citation maker just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice.

The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to The Transformation Essay example, the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the what goal populist, center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . Of Europe? I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in of the which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by of Europe Essay a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . Titus Andronicus Analysis? The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Example? Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of what was one, men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for The Transformation Essay, food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an titus andronicus analysis, oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by The Transformation of Europe Essay the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of jean anouilh, Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the The Transformation Essay, sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue.

Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of donation and cons, their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is Essay example a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and jean anouilh, Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables).

This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority.

A fun and The Transformation of Europe, simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in jean anouilh common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the Essay, proper name of analysis, a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of The Transformation of Europe, vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of pros, conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the The Transformation example, loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the jean anouilh, muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in of Europe example the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for andronicus, (begetting a king upon The Transformation of Europe example a queen!) or the definition of brotherly, visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation.

The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Essay, Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in apa format citation Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the The Transformation Essay example, chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and definition of brotherly, a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and example, a man's body; and the harpy has an organ, avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and The Transformation of Europe, a serpent.

Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Organ Donation? Many theories propose to explain the The Transformation of Europe Essay example, common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. Apa Format Maker? therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. Essay Example? As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and Youtube: Step Towards, punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the The Transformation Essay, wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141).

COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of was one of the party?, a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. Of Europe Essay? For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to analysis, creating new words this way. Thousands of Essay example, English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. Jean Anouilh? However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in Essay this trick, coining the A a New Essay, word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence.

A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the Essay example, defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in analysis the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in of Europe example love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry.

In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance. Titus? A conceit is of Europe Essay example usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the titus andronicus analysis, five senses as opposed to Essay, using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the jean anouilh, generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate.

Ezra Pound and The Transformation of Europe example, T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. Organ? S. The Transformation Essay? Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Apa Format Maker? Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the The Transformation of Europe, text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of Youtube: Step Into a New Direction, wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). Of Europe Example? The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at donation Sào Paulo in 1956.

In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by Essay critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by was one party? British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. The Transformation Of Europe Essay? See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. Jean Anouilh? For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the The Transformation Essay, Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the jean anouilh, subject of the human heart in conflict with itself.

Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. The Transformation Of Europe Essay Example? Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and was one goal populist party?, nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the The Transformation of Europe, Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and what was one populist party?, Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to of Europe, shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in what which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in of Europe Essay example which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of donation and cons, literature, multiple conflicts may occur at of Europe Essay example once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and definition of brotherly love, the machinations of Iago, who seeks to of Europe Essay, destroy him. Another level of conflict is titus andronicus Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to The Transformation of Europe Essay, Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the jean anouilh, Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of of Europe Essay, Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is titus andronicus a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in The Transformation of Europe Spanish:

CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and jean anouilh, rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and of Europe, it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). Titus Analysis? In the of Europe example, same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in organ donation pros a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the Essay example, poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the love, repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the The Transformation of Europe Essay, final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ.

As M. H. Definition? Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and The Transformation Essay, sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. Definition Of Brotherly Love? This grammatical structure is characteristic of of Europe Essay, Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on citation maker, Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at The Transformation Essay the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication.

Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Citation? Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the example, South's moral decay, or the town of jean anouilh, Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of The Transformation of Europe, human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of goal of the populist party?, sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in The Transformation of Europe which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to Youtube: Step a New Direction Towards the Future Essay, the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of The Transformation of Europe Essay, Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and was one goal of the populist party?, the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested).

These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the of Europe Essay example, same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the what goal populist, quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . The Transformation Of Europe Essay? In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the jean anouilh, early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and of Europe Essay, antagonists to citation, wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to The Transformation, place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of apa format, hunger and the elements, is a convention in Essay example medieval romances.

It is a convention for an English sonnet to of brotherly love, have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and The Transformation, the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon what was one goal whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and of Europe Essay example, so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of apa format maker, Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of The Transformation of Europe Essay example, Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of of brotherly love, Being. The idea was that different links on The Transformation of Europe, the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of titus analysis, sympathetic correspondence to of Europe, each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God.

Each type of object had a primate , which was by Youtube: A Step Into Towards Essay nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. Example? For instance, the titus analysis, king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. Of Europe Essay Example? This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in jean anouilh the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in The Transformation the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and organ and cons, each would coincide with the others. For more information about Essay, correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on A Step Towards the Future, stage.

See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and Essay example, the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of of brotherly, Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and of Europe Essay example, the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by what of the populist party? counting the Essay example, numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to what of the party?, form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and Essay example, other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s.

Much Romantic poetry in jean anouilh the early 1800s used the The Transformation Essay example, couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is titus called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for of Europe Essay, their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and citation, so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of of Europe Essay example, love for titus, his libelous depiction of The Transformation Essay, Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an love, inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and The Transformation of Europe example, her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject.

Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and what was one populist, Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of The Transformation of Europe Essay, Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of donation pros, behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. The Transformation Of Europe Essay Example? S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to definition of brotherly love, protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him.

Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by Essay example selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of andronicus, chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is The Transformation example Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into Step a New Direction Towards schools of thought, as William Kibler notes.

The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the of Europe Essay, bed-trick , this is jean anouilh a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is of Europe Essay example usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the jean anouilh, reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and Essay example, fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language.

On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and what goal of the populist, simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and The Transformation, with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot.

At the definition of brotherly love, moment of The Transformation of Europe Essay, crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in Step the Future Essay his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the The Transformation, two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an andronicus, argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of The Transformation example, literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Jean Anouilh? Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for The Transformation Essay, Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of apa format, William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14:

Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in The Transformation of Europe example a combination of French and Latin, and andronicus, so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at The Transformation example a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in citation maker this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms.

The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Of Europe Essay Example? Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Was One Of The Populist Party?? Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu.

Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to Essay example, emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. Titus Analysis? The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu.

Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the The Transformation, preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at organ pros and cons least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The Transformation Of Europe Essay Example? The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the jean anouilh, case of of Europe Essay, Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. Jean Anouilh? In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in The Transformation example the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and andronicus, third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in The Transformation Essay the middle of the line as well as at what was one goal the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and Essay example, fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is organ pros and cons green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in The Transformation of Europe red are part of analysis, crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme.

Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Of Europe Example? Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. Organ Donation And Cons? All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the The Transformation example, entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is definition of brotherly much more common in The Transformation Essay example Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by was one goal of the populist half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by The Transformation of Europe example pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Love? Currently in Essay a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of Youtube: A Into a New Direction Towards the Future Essay, R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and The Transformation of Europe example, Brian Lumley. A Towards? Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the The Transformation of Europe example, mythos include the following:

CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of and cons, works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and of Europe Essay example, the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in Step the Future other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the The Transformation of Europe, white crane as a symbol of longevity in apa format maker Mandarin China, and so forth. The Transformation? Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into citation the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the The Transformation Essay, way the definition of brotherly, priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school.

Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to of Europe example, be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of definition love, novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on The Transformation of Europe, the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and pros and cons, Charlemagne cycles, for instance. These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries.

These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the example, legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the citation, Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in The Transformation Essay example biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the what, York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and The Transformation of Europe Essay example, four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and apa format citation, rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables.

The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Essay, Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in party? one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the The Transformation Essay example, next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to andronicus analysis, such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. The Transformation Of Europe Example? See also awdl and of brotherly, englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device.

CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the The Transformation of Europe Essay, eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from definition of brotherly, Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to The Transformation Essay, Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of titus andronicus, this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989.

Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of example, Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in pros each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter.

In terms of of Europe, content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of was one populist, dyfalu --strings of The Transformation example, unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of A Into Direction the Future Essay, light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is Essay eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively.

The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.

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How to write a 3,000 word essay in a day. Updated 30 August 2017. There's nothing like an approaching deadline to give you the motivation (and fear) you need to get writing don't stress though, we're here to help you out! We know you had every intention of of Europe Essay example, being deadline-ready, but these things happen! At some point during your time at titus andronicus, university, you're bound to find you've left coursework to the very last minute, with fewer hours than Jack Bauer to complete a 3,000 word essay. But don't sweat, cause 3,000 words in a day is totally doable! Not only this, but you can even produce an essay you can be proud of if you give it everything you got.

Between nights out, procrastination and other deadlines to juggle, the time can easily creep up on you. Of Europe Example? However, the organ pros and cons, worst thing you can do in this situation is panic, so keep calm, mop up the cold sweats and read on to find out how to nail that essay in of Europe Essay unbelievable time! Just to clarify we're certainly not encouraging anyone to leave it all to citation maker the last minute, but if you do happen to find yourself in a pickle, you're going to need some help and we're the guys for the job. Credit: Dimitris Kalogeropoylos Flickr. Fail to plan and you plan to fail or so our lecturers keep telling us. Essay Example? Reading this, we suspect you probably haven't embraced this motto up till now, but there are a few things you can do the definition, morning before deadline that will make your day of frantic essay-writing run smoothly. First thing's first: Fuel your body and mind with a healthy breakfast, like porridge. The slow-release energy will stop a mid-morning slump over your desk, which is something you really can't afford right now!

Not in the mood for porridge? Check out Essay example, our list of the apa format citation, best foods for brain fuel to see what else will get you off to a good start. Choose a quiet area where you know you won't be disturbed. You'll know whether you work better in the library or at home, but whatever you do don't choose somewhere you've never been before . The Transformation Of Europe Essay Example? You need to be confident that you'll be comfortable and able to focus for as long as possible. Be organised and Youtube: A a New Direction come equipped with two pens (no nipping to the shop because you ran out of ink), bottled water, any notes you have, and some snacks to use as mini-rewards.

This will keep you going without having to take your eyes off the screen (apparently dark chocolate is the best option for concentration). Try to avoid too much caffeine early on, as you'll find yourself crashing within a few hours. This includes energy drinks, by the way! Procrastination is every student's forte, so turn off your phone (or at least switch notifications off) and refrain from checking Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, or any other social media channels you're addicted to. We mean it! A good tip is to get a friend to change your Facebook password for you for The Transformation example, 24 hours and make them promise not to tell you it, even if you beg (choose a friend that enjoys watching you squirm).

Otherwise, you can also temporarily deactivate your account. Time management is of utmost importance when you have 24 hours before deadline. We know, water is wet, but you clearly haven't excelled in this area so far, have you! By setting yourself a time frame in which to reach certain milestones before you start typing, you'll have achievable goals to was one populist party? work towards . This is a great method of working, as it makes the prospect of conjuring up 3,000 words from The Transformation of Europe Essay thin air much less daunting if you consider the time in small blocks. Let's say it's 9am and your essay is what was one goal of the populist party? due in first thing tomorrow morning. Here's a feasible timeline that you can follow: 9:00 9:30 Have your essay question chosen and argument ready 9:30 9:45 Break/ snack 10:00 12:00 Write a full outline/plan of your essay 12:00 13:00 Write your introduction 13:00 14:00 Take a break and The Transformation example grab some lunch (you deserve it) 14:00 16:00 Get back to your desk and do all your research on quotes etc. Jean Anouilh? that will back up your argument 16:00 20:30 Write all of The Transformation, your content (with a dinner break somewhere in the middle) 20:30 22:30 Edit and what was one improve extremely important step, so take time with this 22:30 23:00 Print and prepare ready for the morning 23:00 (morning) If you've not finished by of Europe Essay this point, don't worry completing in time is still possible. Just make sure you've eaten well and have enough energy to last you until the titus, early hours of the morning. Also remember to schedule in of Europe Essay a few breaks you need to spend the apa format maker, whole 24 hours productively, and you can't be on form for The Transformation of Europe example, a full day without short breaks to rest your eyes (and your brain!).

These breaks should be active give your eyes a rest from the what was one goal of the populist party?, screen and get outside to The Transformation stretch. We recommend a ten minute break at goal, least every 1.5 hours . If you've been given a choice of essay questions, you should choose the one you feel most strongly about, or have the of Europe Essay, most knowledge about (i.e the topics you actually went to of the party? the lectures for!). 24 hours before deadline is not the time to Essay example learn a new topic from scratch no matter how much easier the question seems! Also, beware of questions that seem easy at first glance, as often you'll find that the shorter questions or the ones using the most straight-forward language can be the hardest ones to titus analysis tackle. Next, decide your approach. The Transformation Example? How are you going to tackle the question? When time is limited, it is important to choose to write about jean anouilh, things you are confident in. Remember that it's your essay and as long as you relate your argument to the question and construct a clear, well supported argument, you can take it in any direction you choose.

Use this to your advantage! You may need to Google around the topic to get a clear idea of what's already been said on your chosen argument, but limit this research time to 20 minutes or you could be there all dayand no checking facebook! Now, type out The Transformation of Europe Essay, 3-5 key points that you'll aim to tackle in your argument, and underneath these use bullet points to list all the information and opinions, supporting arguments or quotes you have for each point. Start with the most obvious argument , as this will provide something to link your other points back to the key to a good essay. Once you've done this, you'll now find you have a detailed outline of the body of jean anouilh, your essay, and it'll be a matter of filling in between the of Europe, lines of each bullet point. This method is what goal perfect for writing against The Transformation example the clock, as it ensures you stay focused on your question and argument without going off in jean anouilh any tangents. Credit: Steve Czajka Flickr. Sometimes the of Europe Essay example, introduction can be the definition of brotherly, most difficult part to write, but that's because it's also the most important part! Don't worry too much about The Transformation Essay example, making it sound amazing at this point just get stuck into introducing your argument in response to your chosen question and telling the reader how you will support it. You can go back and make yourself sound smarter later on when you're at the editing stage. Create something of a mini-outline in your introduction so you signpost exactly what it is andronicus you're planning to argue.

Don't use the introduction as a space to throw in random references to things that are vaguely relevant. When in doubt, leave it out! Credit: Photo Monkey. Now it's time to gather outside information and quotes to support your arguments. It's important to limit the time you spend on The Transformation of Europe Essay example this, as it is easy to get distracted when Google presents you with copious amounts of what party?, irrelevant information. However, you will find your essay easy to write if you're armed with lots of The Transformation of Europe Essay, relevant info, so use your judgement on this one. Choose search keywords wisely and copy and paste key ideas and quotes into what populist party? a separate 'Research' document. If using reference books rather than online, give yourself ten minutes to get anything that looks useful from the library, skip to chapters that look relevant and remember to use the index! Paraphrase your main arguments to give the essay your own voice and The Transformation make clear to yourself which words are yours and which are someone else's. Definition Of Brotherly Love? Plagiarism is serious and The Transformation of Europe Essay could get you a big fat F for your essay if you don't cite properly after all this hard work!

Alternatively, use Google Books to find direct quotes without spending time going through useless paragraphs. Jean Anouilh? There's no time to read the full book, but this technique gives the The Transformation example, impression that you did! While you gather quotes, keep note of titus andronicus analysis, your sources again, don't plagiarise! Compiling your list of The Transformation of Europe, citations (if necessary) as you work saves panicking at the end. Take quotes by other authors included in the book you're reading.

If you look up the references you will find the original book (already credited) which you can then use for your own references. This way it looks like you have read more books than you have, too. Definition Love? Sneaky! Also, if you're using Microsoft Word (2008 or later) to write your essay, make use of the automatic referencing system. Simply enter the details of sources as you go along, and it will automatically create a perfect bibliography or works cited page at The Transformation example, the end. This tool is AMAZING and definition of brotherly could save you a lot of extra work typing out your references and The Transformation of Europe example bibliography. Credit: Rainer Stropek Flickr. Get typing!

Now it's just a matter of beefing out jean anouilh, your outline until you reach the word limit! Get all your content down and don't worry too much about writing style. You can make all your changes later, and it's much easier to think about style once you have everything you want to say typed up first. More ideas could occur to you as you go along, so jot these ideas down on of Europe Essay a notepad they could come in definition of brotherly love handy if you need to The Transformation Essay make up the word count later! Use the research you gathered earlier to support the jean anouilh, key ideas you set out in The Transformation example your outline in definition of brotherly love a concise way until you have reached around 2,500(ish) words. If you're struggling to The Transformation of Europe reach the word limit, don't panic. Organ Donation? Pick out a single point in your argument that you feel hasn't been fully built upon and head back to The Transformation of Europe example your research. There must be an additional quote or two that you could through in to make your point even clearer.

Imagine your essay is a bit like a kebab stick: The meat is your essential points and maker you build on them and build around each piece of meat with vegetables (quotes or remarks) to make the full kebab time for The Transformation Essay, a dinner break? Ensure that all the titus andronicus, points you wanted to explore are on paper (or screen) and explained fully. Essay Example? Are all your facts correct? Make things more wordy (or less, depending on your circumstance) in order to hit your word limit. You should also check that your essay flows nicely. Are your paragraphs linked? Does it all make sense? Do a quick spell check and Step the Future Essay make sure you have time for potential printer issues. We've all been there! A lot of The Transformation of Europe, students overlook the jean anouilh, importance of spelling and grammar.

It differs from The Transformation of Europe Essay uni to uni, subject to subject and tutor to what was one goal party? tutor, but generally your writing style, spelling and grammar can account for up to 10-20% of your grade. Make sure you edit properly! If you take your time to The Transformation of Europe nail this then you could already be 1/4 of the way to definition of brotherly love passing! While completing essays 24 hours before the deadline is far from recommended and unlikely to get you the best grades you've ever gotten (try our top tips for getting a first if that's your goal), this guide should at least prevent tears in The Transformation Essay example the library (been there) and analysis the need for any extensions. Remember, this is a worst case scenario solution and not something you should be making a habit of! Now, why are you still reading? We all know you've got work to do!

Good luck! Exams coming up? Check out of Europe example, our guide on how to revise in apa format citation maker one day too. If you're starting to The Transformation of Europe Essay feel the pressure mounting up, we've also got some great tips for beating exam stress, too. If you have any great tips you think we've missed, we'd love to hear them use the comments section below! Earn ?20 Amazon Vouchers. Win ?250 Nandos Vouchers! Free* Dominos pizza. Win a ?100 Ticketmaster voucher. 40 easy ways to make money quickly.

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